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Battle of the Coral Sea

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The Battle of the Coral Sea, in early May 1942, was one of the major turning points of the Pacific War. It was the first battle in which aircraft carriers attacked each other and the first ever naval battle in which neither side's ships sighted the other. The engagement ended with no clear victor, but the damage suffered and experience gained on both sides set the stage for the Battle of Midway one month later.

Contents

Background

In early 1942, having conquered nearly all of Southeast Asia in just a few months, Japan was at the apex of its power. Still reeling from a long series of humiliating defeats, the Allies were just beginning to develop the skills and organise the material assets needed to survive and, eventually, strike back. Allied strategy at this time was focused on a defensive build-up of United States Army and Marine strength on New Caledonia (well to the south of the Solomon Islands), and Australian Army and Royal Australian Air Force units in the south and east of the Australian Territory of New Guinea, just north of Australia itself.

On March 12, the Prime Minister of Japan, General Hideki Tojo, said:

Australia and New Zealand are now threatened by the might of the Imperial forces, and both them should know that any resistance is futile. If the Australian government does not modify her present attitude, their continent will suffer the same fate as the Dutch East Indies.[1] (http://www.bluejacket.com/ww2_05-04-42_coral-sea.html)

In April 1942, Japanese forces left their new stronghold of Rabaul (on New Britain, just north of mainland New Guinea) and launched a two-pronged strategy: an amphibious assault against Port Moresby (Operation "MO"), and another against Tulagi in the Solomon Islands. The intention was threefold: to establish control of the Solomons, initially with a seaplane base; to destroy and then occupy Port Moresby (the last Allied base between Japan and Australia); and in doing these things, to bring the American aircraft carrier fleet to battle for the first time in the war.

Historians remain divided about Japanese longer-term intentions: there seems little doubt that they planned to greatly strengthen their hold on the Solomon Islands as a bastion against any future US counter attacks, a reasonable probability that northern Australia would be invaded, and considerable doubt about the following moves, if any. In practice, Japanese military planning structure was complex, had ill-defined areas of responsibility, and was crippled by endless bitter debates between army and navy. The only firm deduction that can be made about longer-term Japanese plans in the South Pacific is that whatever the navy eventually put forward would be opposed by the army with a counter-plan.

Three Japanese fleets set sail: the invasion forces for the Solomons and Port Moresby, and a covering force consisting of two big new aircraft carriers (Shokaku and Zuikaku, both Pearl Harbor veterans), a smaller carrier (Shoho), two heavy cruisers, and supporting craft. Alerted by radio intercepts, the Allies knew that Japanese land-based aircraft were being moved south and that an operation was impending. In opposition, they had three main fleets: USS Yorktown (CV-5) already in the Coral Sea under the command of Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher, USS Lexington (CV-2) en route, and a joint Allied surface fleet. The carriers USS Hornet (CV-8) and USS Enterprise (CV-6) were heading south after the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo but arrived too late to take part in the battle.

The battle

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Coral_sea.jpg
Map of the battle

Lexington arrived to join Yorktown on May 1st. The Japanese occupied Tulagi without incident on May 3rd, and construction of a seaplane base began. After fuelling, Yorktown closed on Tulagi and, on May 4, launched three successful strikes against Japanese shipping and aircraft there — revealing the presence of an American carrier to the enemy but sinking the destroyer Kikuzuki, crippling the island's seaplane reconnaissance capability, and damaging other vessels before retiring to the south to rendezvous with Lexington and the newly-arrived cruisers. Meanwhile, the two large Japanese carriers were approaching from south of the Solomons — neatly placing the Allied fleet between the two Japanese fleets.

Land-based B-17s attacked the gradually approaching Port Moresby invasion fleet on May 6 with the usual lack of success. Almost another year would pass before air forces realised that high-level bombing raids on moving naval targets were pointless. Although both carrier fleets flew extensive searches on the 6th, cloudy weather kept them hidden from each other and the two fleets spent the night only 70 miles apart. Other allied aircraft joined the battle from airbases at Cooktown and Iron Range on Cape York Peninsula.

That night Fletcher, mindful that his primary role was to protect Port Moresby, took the difficult decision to detach the Allies' main surface fleet, under the Australian Rear Admiral John Crace, to block the probable course of an invasion fleet. Crace's force consisted of the cruisers HMAS Australia, USS Chicago, HMAS Hobart, and the destroyers USS Perkins, USS Walke and USS Farragut. Fletcher and Crace knew that exposing surface ships to attack by land-based aircraft without air cover was to risk the same fate that had overtaken the British battleship HMS Prince of Wales and battlecruiser HMS Repulse five months before. Their fears were realised when the cruisers were located by a squadron of Japanese torpedo bombers and came under intense air attack, on the afternoon of May 7. Whether as a result of luck or skill, the Allied ships escaped with few casualties and little damage. Only a matter of minutes after the Japanese raid, Crace's force was inadvertently attacked by friendly B-17s, and Farragut and Perkins once again survived narrow misses.

Missing image
Shoho_g17026.jpg
Burning Shoho, after another torpedo hit

On the 7th, both fleets flew off all available aircraft, but neither found the main body of the other, and both mistakenly attacked subsidiary forces. Japanese aircraft found and attacked the US fleet oiler USS Neosho (AO-23) and escorting destroyer USS Sims (DD-409), mistaking them for a carrier and a cruiser. Sims was sunk while Neosho was crippled. Meanwhile, the US aircraft had missed Shokaku and Zuikaku but found the invasion fleet, in company with the small carrier Shoho, which was soon sunk. In the previous five months, the Allies had lost a dozen battleships and carriers and been unable to sink a single major Japanese unit in return. Shoho was small by carrier standards, but the laconic "scratch one flattop" radioed back to Lexington brought news of the first Allied naval success of the Pacific war.

Finally, with dawn searches on May 8, the main carrier forces located one another and launched maximum effort raids, which passed each other in the air. Hidden by rain, Zuikaku escaped detection, but Shokaku was hit three times by bombs. Listing and on fire, Shokaku was unable to land her aircraft and effectively out of action.

Missing image
USS_Lexington_brennt.jpg
Burning USS Lexington

Both American carriers were hit by the Japanese strike: Yorktown by a bomb, the larger, less maneuverable Lexington by both bombs and torpedoes. Although she survived the immediate damage and was thought to be repairable, leaking aviation fuel exploded a little over an hour later. Lexington had to be abandoned and torpedoed to prevent capture.

Crace's force continued to stand between the invasion force and Port Moresby. Inoue was misled by returning fliers' reports, as to the strength of the Allied cruiser-destroyer force, and ordered the invasion fleet to return. With Shokaku damaged and Zuikaku short of aircraft, neither was able to take part in the crucial Battle of Midway a month later. The damaged Yorktown returned to Pearl Harbor.

Significance

In tactical terms, the Japanese had had a narrow victory: one small carrier lost and a large carrier damaged, against the loss of a large carrier and equivalent damage to another. But from the Allied point of view, after five months of continuous defeat, a battle that came out almost even was close enough to a victory as not to matter.

The seaborne invasion of Port Moresby was averted. Moresby was vital to Allied strategy, and could not have been defended by the ground forces then stationed there. The loss of Port Moresby may well have meant the loss of Australia, and would certainly have been a dreadful blow to the Allied cause. Without a toehold in New Guinea, the subsequent Allied advance, difficult though it was, would have been much harder still. As a result of the Coral Sea battle, the Japanese were forced to attempt taking Moresby overland. The consequent delay was just long enough to permit the arrival of veteran AIF soldiers to fight the Kokoda Track campaign and the Battle of Milne Bay, which in turn relieved pressure on Guadalcanal.

The US Navy learned a great deal from the Battle of the Coral Sea. From the loss of Lexington the Navy learned better ways to contain aviation fuel and control defensive fighter aircraft, from the attacks on the Japanese carriers it learned more about coordination of dive-bombers and torpedo bombers to best effect (too late to help with Midway, but of value longer-term), and, perhaps most importantly of all, it learned that the Japanese could perhaps be beaten.

The loss of Lexington was a severe blow, but in time the US was able to replace ship, aircraft, and trained crew with others superior in all respects. The damage to Yorktown was estimated to require months in port, but in a miracle of improvisation she was made more-or-less battleworthy after just three days in Pearl, and was then able to play a vital part in the most important battle of the Pacific war: Midway.

Although Zuikaku was only slightly damaged, with only 40 aircraft left she was in no condition to fight and had to return to Japan to replenish. Shokaku took six months to repair. Neither carrier was able to take part in the crucial battle of Midway—a very close-fought encounter that either carrier may have been able to turn.

Less directly but no less significantly, the loss of highly trained aircrew from the Japanese carriers was never to be made up. Prior to the battles of the Coral Sea and (even more so) Midway, Japanese naval aviation was unchallengeable in two oceans. Long years of hard peace-time training, and real-life exercises against the hapless Chinese, and the scarcely less hapless western Allies, had honed an elite group of flyers. Japan could manufacture plenty of replacement aircraft, and at least a few replacement carriers, but could not replace the most skilled naval pilots in the world. From this point on, Japanese naval aviation began to decline.

See also

External links

References

  • Don Sinclair. Cooktown at War: A Record of Activities in Cooktown During World War II. Cooktown and District Historical Society. (1997).cs:Bitva v Korálovém moři

de:Schlacht im Korallenmeer it:Battaglia del Mar dei Coralli ja:珊瑚海海戦 he:קרב ים האלמוגים nl:Slag in de Koraalzee pl:Bitwa na Morzu Koralowym

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