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Avignon Papacy

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The Papal palace in Avignon

In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1305 to 1378 during which the Bishop of Rome, the Pope, lived in Avignon (now a part of France) rather than in Rome. Seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon during this period:

In 1378, Gregory XI moved the papal residence back to Rome and died there. Due to a dispute over the subsequent election, a faction of cardinals set up an antipope back in Avignon. This was the beginning of the period of difficulty from 1378 to 1414 which Catholic scholars refer to as the "Western schism" or, "the great controversy of the antipopes" (also called "the second great schism" by some secular and Protestant historians), when parties within the Catholic church were divided in their allegiances among the various claimants to the office of pope. The Council of Constance in 1414 finally resolved the controversy, dismantling the last vestiges of the Avignon papacy.

The Pontifical States (today limited to Vatican City) included land around Avignon (Comtat Venaissin) and a small enclave to the east. They remained part of the Pontifical States up to the French Revolution: they became part of France in 1791.

Contents

Background

The Papacy in the late medieval ages had a major secular role in addition to its spiritual role. The conflict between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor basically boiled down to a dispute over which of them was the leader of Christendom in secular matters. In the early 14th century, the papacy was well past its time – its peak of importance had passed in the 12th and 13th centuries. The success of the early crusades added greatly to the prestige of the Popes as secular leaders of the Christendom, with monarchs like the of Kings of England, France and even the Emperor merely acting as Marshals for the popes, and leading "their" armies. One exception to this was Frederick II, who was twice excommunicated by the Pope during one crusade. Frederick II ignored this and was rather successful in the Holy Land.

Beginning with Clement V, elected 1305, all popes during the residence of the Holy See in Avignon were French. However, this simple fact tends to overestimate this influence. Southern France at that time had a quite independent culture from Northern France, where most of the advisers to the King of France were coming from. Arles was at that time still independent, formally a part of the Holy Roman Empire. Domains such as Toulouse enjoyed a quasi-independence. The literature produced by the "troubadour" age in the Languedoc area, is unique and strongly distinguishes its culture from that of the Royal circles in the north. Even in terms of religion, the South produced its own variant, the Cathar movement, which was ultimately declared heretic, as it clashed with doctrines of the Church. But this merely demonstrated a strong sense of independence in Southern France.

A stronger source of influence was the move of the Holy See from Rome to Avignon in 1305. Following the impasse during the previous conclave and to escape from the infighting between the powerful families that produced former Popes, such as the Colonna and the Orsini, the Church looked for a safer place and found it in Avignon, a papal fief in the Comtat Venaissin. Formally it was part of Arles, but in reality it was under the strong influence of the French king. During the time in Avignon the Papacy adopted many features of the Royal court: the life-style of its cardinals was more reminiscent of princes than clerics; more and more French cardinals, often relatives of the ruling pope, took key positions; and the closeness of French troops was a constant reminder of where the secular power lay, with the memory of Boniface VIII still fresh.

One of the most damaging developments for the Church grew directly out of its successful reorganisation and centralisation of the administration under Clement V and John XXII. The Papacy now directly controlled the appointments of benefices, abandoning customary election processes to secure this considerable income. Many other forms of payment brought riches to the Holy See and its cardinals: Tithes, a ten percent tax on church property, annates, the income of the first year after filling a position such as bishop, special taxes for crusades that never happened, and all forms of dispensation, from entering benefices without basic qualifications such as literacy to request by a converted Jew to visit his unconverted parents. Popes such as John XXII, Benedict XII and Clement VI reportedly spent fortunes on expensive wardrobe and at banquets; silver and gold plates were used. Overall the public life of leading church members, resembled more those of princes, rather than members of the clergy. This splendor and corruption from the head of the church found its way to the lower ranks: when a bishop had to pay up to a year's income for gaining a benefice, he sought for similar ways of raising this money from his new office. This was put to an extreme by the pardoners who sold absolutions for all kinds of sins to the poor. Where pardoners were hated, but needed to redeem one's soul, the friars who failed to follow a Christian path by failing on the vows of chastity and poverty were despised. This sentiment strengthened movements calling for a return to absolute poverty, relinquishment of all personal and church belongings, and preaching as the Lord and his disciples did. For the church, an institution embedded in the secular structure and its focus on property, this was a dangerous development and in the early 14th century most of these movements were declared heretic. These included the Fraticelli in Italy, the Waldensian movement in Germany, and the Hussite movement in Bohemia (inspired by Wycliff in England). Furthermore, the display of wealth by the upper ranks of the church, which was in contrast to the common expectation of poverty and strict adherence to principles, was used by the Papacy's enemies in raising charges against the popes: King of France Philippe employed the strategy, as did Ludwig IV of Bavaria. In his conflict with the latter, Pope John XXII excommunicated two leading philosophers, Marsilius of Padua and William Ockham, who were outspoken critics of the Papacy, and who had found refuge with Ludwig of Bavaria in Munich. In response William Ockham charged the pope with seventy errors and seven heresies.

The proceedings against the Templars in the Council of Vienne represent an episode of this time, reflecting the powers and their relationship. In 1314 the collegium at Vienne summoned to rule over the Templars. The council, overall unconvinced about the guilt of the order as a whole, was unlikely to condemn the entire order based on the scarce evidence brought forward. Exerting massive pressure, in order to gain part of the substantial funds of the order, the king managed to get the ruling he wanted. Pope Clement V ordered by decree the suppression of the order. In the cathedral of St-Maurice in Vienne, the King of France, and his son the King of Navarre, were sitting next to him, when he issued the decree. Under pain of excommunication, no one was allowed to speak at that occasion, except when asked by the Pope. The Templars who appeared in Vienne to defend their order, were not allowed to present their case: originally cardinals of the collegium ruled that they should be allowed to raise a defense, only after the arrival of the King of France personally in Vienne, putting pressure on the collegium, the decision was revised.

The Papacy in the 14th Century

Conflict between the Popes and the king of France

The beginning of the century, that would later be characterised by calamities such as the Black Death and the Hundred Years War between the two major powers in Europe, saw a Papacy apparently at the height of its power. Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303), born Benedict Caetani and an experienced politician sometimes described as brusque and arrogant, was a ferocious proponent of the Universal Sovereignty of the Papacy over all Christendom, as stated in the Papal bull Dictatus Papae by Pope Gregory VII. The concrete issue that sparked conflict with the King of France was the question whether secular lords were allowed to tax the clergy. In his bull Clericis Laicos (1296) Boniface VIII prohibited any taxation on church property except by the Papacy or the payment of such taxes. But only one year later he granted the King of France the right to raise taxes on the clergy in cases of emergency. The great success of the Jubilee Year 1300, it is reported that up to 2 million pilgrims visited Rome, considerably strengthened the prestige of the Papacy, brought funds to Rome and led the Pope to grossly overestimate his temporal powers. After the arrest of the Bishop of Pamiers by Philippe IV, the Pope issued the bull Salvator Mundi, retracting all privileges granted to the French king by previous popes, and a few weeks later Ausculta fili with charges against the king, summoning him before a council to Rome. In a bold assertion of Papal sovereignty, Boniface declared that "God has placed us over the Kings and Kingdoms". In response, Philippe wrote "Your venerable stupidness may know, that we are nobody's vassal in temporal matters", and called for a meeting of the Estates General, a council of the lords of France, who supported his position. The King of France issued charges of sodomy, simony, sorcery, and heresy against the pope and summoned him before the council. The pope's response was the strongest affirmation to date of papal sovereignty. In Unam Sanctam (November 18 1302), he decreed that "it is necessary to salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff". He was preparing a bull that would excommunicate the King of France and put the interdict over France, and to depose the entire clergy of France, when in September of 1303, William Nogaret, the strongest critic of the Papacy in the French inner circle, led a delegation to Rome, with intentionally loose orders by the king to bring the pope, if necessary by force, before a council to rule on the charges brought against him. Nogaret coordinated with the cardinals of the Colonna family, long standing rivals to pope Boniface VIII, against whom the pope even preached a crusade earlier in his Papacy. In 1303 French and Italian troops attacked the pope in Anagni, his home town, arresting the pope himself. He was freed three days later by the population of Anagni. However, Boniface VIII, then 86 years of age, was deeply shattered by this attack on his own person and died a few weeks later.

Cooperation

The death of Pope Boniface deprived the Papacy of its most able politician who could hold his ground against the secular power of the king of France. After the conciliatory Papacy of Benedict XI (1303-04), Clement V (1305-1314) became the next pontiff. He was born in southern France, Gascony, but not directly connected to the French court. He owed his election to the French clerics. He decided against moving to Rome and established his court in Avignon. In this situation of dependency on the powerful neighbours in France, three principles characterised the politics by Clement V: the suppression of the heretic movements (such as the Cathars in southern France); the reorganisation of the internal administration of the church; and the preservation of an untainted image of the church as the sole instrument of God's will on earth. The latter was directly challenged by Philippe IV when he pushed for a trial against his former adversary, Pope Boniface VIII, for alleged heresy. Exerting strong influence on the cardinals of the collegium, this could mean a severe blow to the church's authority. And much of Clement's politics was designed to avoid such a blow, which he finally did. However, the price was concessions on various fronts; despite strong personal doubts, in the end he pushed for proceedings against the Templars, and he personally ruled to suppress the order.

One important issue during the Papacy of John XXII (born Jaques Dueze in Cahors, and previously Archbishop in Avignon), was his conflict with Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor. The latter refuted the right of the pope to install the Emperor by coronation. He resorted to a similar tactic as King of France Philippe earlier and summoned the nobles of Germany to back his decision. Marsilius of Padua gave the justification of this secular supremacy over the lands in the Holy Roman Empire. This conflict with the Emperor, often fought out in expensive wars, drove the Papacy even more into the arms of the French king.

Pope Benedict XII (1334-1342), born Jaques Fournier in Pamiers, was previously active in the inquisition against the Cathar movement. In contrast to the rather bloody picture of the inquisition in general, he was reported to be very careful about the souls of the examined, taking a lot of time in the proceedings. His interest in pacifying southern France was also motivation for mediating between the king of France and the King of England, before the outbreak of the Hundred Years War.

Submission

Under Pope Clement VI (1342-1352) the French interests started dominating the Holy See. Clement VI had been Archbishop of Rouen and advisor to Philippe IV before, so his links to the French court were much stronger than those of his predecessors. At some point he even financed French war efforts out of his own pockets. He reportedly loved luxurious wardrobe and under his rule the extravagant life style in Avignon reached new heights.

Clement VI is also the pope who reigned during the Black Plague. This epidemic swept through Europe between 1347-1350, and is believed to have killed about one third of Europe's population.

Pope Innocent VI (1352-1362), born Etienne Aubert, was less partisan than Clement VI. He was keen on establishing peace between France and England, having worked to this end in papal delegations in 1345 and 1348. His gaunt appearance and austere manners commanded higher respect in the eyes of nobles at both sides of the conflict. However, he was also indecisive and impressionable, already an old man when being elected Pope. In this situation, the King of France managed to influence the Holy See, although papal legates played key roles in various attempts to stop the conflict. Most notably in 1353 the Bishop of Porto, Guy de Boulogne, tried to set up a conference. After initial successful talks the effort failed, largely due to the mistrust from English side over the Guy's strong ties with the French court. In a letter Innocent VI himself wrote to the Duke of Lancaster: "Although we were born in France and although for that and other reasons we hold the realm of France in special affection, yet in working for peace we have put aside our private prejudices and tried to serve the interested of everyone".

With Pope Urban V (1362-70) the control of the French court over the Papacy became more direct. Urban V himself is described as the most austere of the Avignon popes after Benedict XII and probably the most spiritual of all. However, he was not a strategist and made substantial concessions to the French crown especially in finances, a crucial issue during the war with England. In 1369 Pope Urban V supported the marriage of Philip the Bold of Burgundy and Margaret of Flanders, rather than giving dispensation to one of Edward III's sons to marry Margaret. This clearly showed the partisanship of the Papacy, and correspondingly the respect of the church dropped.

Schism

A medieval map of Rome from a manuscript of the period (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, MS Ital. 81, folio 18).  The illustration shows Rome personified as widow grieving the loss of the papacy.
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A medieval map of Rome from a manuscript of the period (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, MS Ital. 81, folio 18). The illustration shows Rome personified as widow grieving the loss of the papacy.

The most influential decision in the reign of Pope Gregory XI (1370-1378) was the return to Rome in 1378. Although the Pope was French born and still under strong influence by the French King, the increasing conflict between factions friendly and hostile to the Pope posed a threat to the Papal lands and to the allegiance of Rome itself. When the Papacy established an embargo against grain exports during a food scarcity 1374/75, Florence organised several cities into a league against the Papacy: Milan, Bologna, Perugia, Pisa, Lucca and Genoa. The papal legate, Robert de Geneva, a relative to the House of Savoy, pursued a particular ruthless policy against the league to re-establish control over these cities. He convinced Pope Gregory to hire Breton mercenaries. To quell an uprising of the inhabitants of Cesena he hired John Hawkwood and had the majority of the people massacred (between 2500 and 3500 people were reported dead). Following such events opposition against the Papacy strengthened. Florence came in open conflict with the Pope. The entire city was excommunicated and as reply the export of clerical taxes was stopped. The trade was seriously hampered and both sides had to find a solution. In his decision about returning to Rome, the Pope was also under the influence of Catherine of Siena, later canonised, who preached for a return to Rome.

The schism itself was finally ended by a series of councils up to 1417. The establishment of the church councils, with the power to decide over the position of Pope, was one of the main outcomes of the schism. However, it didn't survive long beyond 1417.

Criticism

The period has been called the "Babylonian captivity" of the popes, particularly by Martin Luther but also by many Catholic writers. This nickname is polemical, in that it refers to the claim by critics that the prosperity of the church at this time was accompanied by a profound compromise of the Papacy's spiritual integrity, especially in the alleged subordination of the powers of the Church to the ambitions of the French kings. Coincidentally, the "captivity" of the popes at Avignon lasted around the same duration as the exile of the Jews in Babylon, making the analogy all the more convenient and rhetorically potent. For this reason, the Avignon papacy has been and is often today depicted as being totally dependent on the French kings, and sometimes as even being treacherous to its spiritual role and its heritage in Rome.

Summary

The relationship between the Papacy and France changed drastically over the course of the 14th century. Starting with open conflict between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philippe IV of France, it turned to a cooperation from 1305 to 1342, and finally to a Papacy under strong influence by the French throne up to 1378. Such partisanship of the Papacy was one of the reasons for the dropping esteem for the institution, which in turn was one of the reasons for the schism from 1378-1417. In the period of the Schism, the power struggle in the Papacy became a battlefield of the major powers, with France supporting the Pope in Avignon and England supporting the Pope in Rome. At the end of the century, still in the state of schism, the Papacy had lost most of its direct political power, and the nation states of France and England were established as the main powers in Europe.

Overall, it seems an exaggeration to characterise the Papacy as a puppet of the French throne. Even during its Avignon period, 1305 - 1378, the Papacy always pursued its own goals of uniting Christian lords (for example by mediating between France and England) and to uphold the position of the Church (for example by preventing charges of heresy against Boniface VIII made by King Philippe). Only in later times, when a strong French King faced a weak pope, the Papacy made significant concessions to the French king, as under the most French-friendly Pope Urban V who was pressured by the King of France. The basis for exerting such pressure can be found in the changed balance of power in the 14th century. The claim of the Papacy for universal sovereignty, reiterated since Gregory VII's "Dictatus Papae" and championed by Boniface VIII at the beginning of the century, was impossible to uphold in the face of Scholastic movements and the influential works of Marsilius of Padua and William of Occam. The administrative reorganisation beginning with Clement V was successful in bringing funds to the Holy See. However, the focus on administrative and juristic issues characterised the entire Avignon Papacy and consequently it lost much respect among lower nobility and common people, who were more sympathetic to religious orders vowed to poverty rather than to a church hierarchy where cardinals often lived lives of Princes.

External links

References

  1. Propylaen Weltgeschichte, Band 5 "Islam, Die Entstehung Europas",
  2. Chapter "Das Hochmittelalter", Francois Louis Ganshof, p 395ff in [1].
  3. Chapter "Religioese und Geistige Bewegungen im Hochmittelalter" Arno Brost, p 489ff in [1].
  4. Chapter "Europa im 14. Jahrhundert", A.R. Myers, 563ff, in [1].
  5. George Holmes (ed) "The Oxford History of Medieval Europe", Oxford University Press, 1988.
  6. Chapter "The Civilization of Courts and Cities in the North, 1200-1500", Malcom Vale, in [5].
  7. Piers Paul Read, "The Templars", Phoenix Press..
  8. Chapter 17, "The Temple Destroyed", in [7].
  9. Jonathan Sumption, "Trial by Fire", Faber and Faber, 1999.
  10. Barbara Tuchman "A Distant Mirror", Papermac, 1978.
  11. Chapter 16 "The Papal Schism" in [10].
  12. "Weltgeschichte", Sechster Band, Mitteleuropa und Nordeuropa, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig und Wien, 1906
  13. Hans F. Helmolt VI. "Die westliche Entfaltung des Christentums" in [12].
  14. Ladurie, E. le Roi. "Montaillou, Catholics and Cathars in a French Village, 1294-1324", trans. B. Bray, 1978. Also published as "Montaillou: The Promised Land of Error".
  15. Yves Renouard "Avignon Papacy"

See also

The wine Châteauneuf-du-Pape, which means "pope's new castle", was named after the papal residence in Avignon.ja:アヴィニョン捕囚 nl:Babylonische ballingschap der pausen (1309-1376) pt:Papado de Avignon sv:Påvarnas babyloniska fångenskap

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