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  1. History of China (45919 bytes)
    2: ...identity. These cultural and political influences from many parts of Asia as well as successive waves ...
    7: ...have reached China about 65,000 years ago from [[Africa]]. Early evidence for proto-Chinese [[rice pad...
    14: ...he earliest written record of China's past, dates from the [[Shang Dynasty]] in perhaps the [[13th cen...
    18: ... around [[2000 BC]] was unearthed. Early markings from this period, found on pottery and shells, have ...
    22: ...[[Zhengzhou]] and [[Shangcheng]]. The second set, from the later Shang or Yin period, consists of a la...
  2. November 4 (10686 bytes)
    17: *[[1899]] - [[Sigmund Freud]]'s ''[[The Interpretation of Dreams]]'' is pu...
    24: ... II]]: U.S. President [[Franklin Delano Roosevelt|Franklin D. Roosevelt]] orders the [[United States C...
    28: * [[1956]] - [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] troops invade [[Hungary]] to crush the [[Hungar...
    29: ... to be retrievable and she dies a few hours later from stress and overheating.
    48: *[[1765]] - [[Pierre Girard]], [[France|French]] mathematician (d. [[1836]])
  3. Dombra (1417 bytes)
    7: ...fretted, while the Kazakh dombra is played with a fret.
    9: ...mbol of nationalism among the post-[[Soviet Union|Soviet]] nations of the [[Commonwealth of Independent St...
    11: ...er of similar instruments that differ very little from the dombra described here. [[Turkmenistan]] has...
  4. Madeleine Albright (7085 bytes)
    40: ...umbia University]], and her Masters and Doctorate from Columbia University's Department of Public Law ...
    42: ...e was responsible for foreign policy legislation. From [[1976]] to [[1978]], she served as Chief Legis...
    44: From [[1981]] to [[1982]], Secretary Albright was aw...
    47: ...ucting research in developments and trends in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.
    76: ...]], [[1937]] in [[Prague]]. ''Madeleine'' was the French version of "Madlenka", a Czech nickname given...
  5. Kim Campbell (10679 bytes)
    31: ...) was the nineteenth [[Prime Minister of Canada]] from [[June 25]] to [[November 4]], [[1993]]. Though...
    33: ... (B.A., LL.B.) and studied towards a doctorate in Soviet Government at the [[London School of Economics]].
    39: ...ship of the party. A few years later she resigned from the legislature to run in the [[Canadian federa...
    45: Campbell's quick rise to fame from a relatively unknown [[Cabinet of Canada|cabine...
    51:
  6. Indira Gandhi (15405 bytes)
    51: ...ary 19]], [[1966]] to [[March 24]], [[1977]], and from [[January 14]], [[1980]] until her [[assassinat...
    67: ...-aligned). India subsequently withdrew its forces from west Pakistan, but the independent [[Republic o...
    69: ...had collapsed with depositors getting back only a fraction of their money. Moreover a large number of ...
    80: ...be removed from her seat in Parliament and banned from running for an additional six years. Rather tha...
    84: ... help of the parliament, thus protecting herself from legal prosecution once emergency rule was revok...
  7. Alexandra Kollontai (3203 bytes)
    1: ...ry, first as a member of the [[Menshevik]]s, then from [[1914]] on as a [[Bolshevik]]. She was effecti...
    7: ... improve the conditions of women's lives in the [[Soviet Union]], fighting illiteracy and educating women ...
    11: ...oviet Union|Communist Party]] and joined with her friend, [[Alexander Shlyapnikov]], to form a left-wi...
    13: ...o]] and [[Sweden]]. She was also a member of the Soviet delegation to the [[League of Nations]]. She die...
    15: ...ntai is an unusual figure in the history of the [[Soviet Union]], as she was an "Old Bolshevik" and a majo...
  8. Golda Meir (10143 bytes)
    1: [[Image:Goldmeir at whitehouse.jpg|frame|right|Golda Meir was the fourth [[Prime Minist...
    2: ...r, and as the fourth [[Prime Minister of Israel]] from [[March 17]], [[1969]] to [[April 11]][[1974]]....
    6: ...liest memories were of her father boarding up the front door in response to rumors of a [[pogrom]]. He...
    14: ...egan speaking and advocating. She hosted visitors from [[Palestine (region)|Palestine]].
    16: She eventually graduated from teachers' college and taught in the public scho...
  9. Condoleezza Rice (23116 bytes)
    27: ...first [[African American]] [[woman]], the second African American (after [[Colin Powell]]), and the se...
    31: ...isor]] during his first term. She was the second African American (after Powell) and the first female ...
    37: ...air]] was killed in the bombing of the primarily African-American [[16th Street Baptist Church bombing...
    41: ...ht. This experience sparked her interest in the [[Soviet Union]] and [[international relations]] and led h...
    43: ...s [[Russian language|Russian]], [[French language|French]], and [[Spanish language|Spanish]].
  10. Margaret Thatcher (46377 bytes)
    27: ...s nicknamed the '''Iron Lady''' in [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] propaganda (because of her vocal opposition to ...
    29: ...y]] task force to retake the [[Falkland Islands]] from [[Argentina]] in the [[Falklands War]].
    31: ...and]], and increased wealth inequalities. However from the mid 1980s a period of sustained economic gr...
    33: ...d Monetary Union]]. Her leadership was challenged from within and she was forced to resign in [[1990]]...
    36: ...hire]] in eastern [[England]]. Her father was [[Alfred Roberts]], who ran a grocers' shop in the town ...
  11. Anna Akhmatova (2156 bytes)
    3: Akhmatova's work ranges from short lyric poems through poem cycles, such as ...
    9: Akhmatova maintained a long friendship with fellow Russian poetess [[Marina Tsve...
    11: ...ecuted in [[1921]] for activities considered anti-Soviet; Akhmatova was effectively silenced, unable to pu...
    13: ...g, Russia|St Petersburg]]), where Akhmatova lived from the mid [[1920s]] until [[1952]].
  12. Ayn Rand (18001 bytes)
    14: #That no one has the right to seek values from others by physical force, or impose ideas on ot...
    19: ...to have been present when Ayn chose the name Rand from a typewriter.
    22: ...an aspiring young actor, [[Frank O'Connor (actor)|Frank O'Connor]], who caught her eye. The two were m...
    24: ...]] by Scalara Films, [[Rome]], despite resistance from the [[Italy|Italian]] government under [[Benito...
    33: ...ropaganda]] by U.S. patriots, trying to put their Soviet allies in [[World War II]] under the best possibl...
  13. Marina Tsvetaeva (21885 bytes)
    5: ...ally began in the 1960s. Tsvetaeva's poetry arose from her own deeply convoluted personality, her ecce...
    8: ...ghly literate woman. She was also volatile and a (frustrated) concert pianist, with some [[Poland|Poli...
    10: ... but deeply wrapped up in his studies and distant from his family. He was also still deeply in love wi...
    12: ...g the course of her travels she acquired Italian, French and German languages.
    14: ...oloshin came to see Tsvetaeva and soon became her friend and mentor.
  14. Sally Ride (1826 bytes)
    1: ...a Savitskaya]] ([[1982]]), both from the former [[Soviet Union]].
    5: ...n [[astrophysics]], [[general relativity]], and [[free-electron laser physics]]. She later became the ...
  15. Svetlana Savitskaya (713 bytes)
    1: ...8]], in [[Moscow, Russia]], was a [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] female [[astronaut|cosmonaut]] who flew the [[S...
  16. Valentina Tereshkova (2387 bytes)
    3: ...March 6]], [[1937]]), is a retired [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] [[astronaut|cosmonaut]] and was the first woman...
    9: ...he Communist Party]]. In [[1997]] she was retired from the [[VVS|air force]] and the cosmonaut corps b...
  17. Sofia Gubaidulina (8325 bytes)
    5: During her studies in [[Soviet]] Russia, her music was labeled "irresponsible" f...
    9: ...posed a homage to [[T. S. Eliot]], using the text from the poet's spiritual masterpiece ''[[Four Quart...
    35: *''Garten von freuden und traurigkeiten'' for flute, viola, harp a...
    69: *''The Canticle of the Sun of St Francis of Assisi'' for cello, chamber choir, and or...
  18. Marina Raskova (5055 bytes)
    5: ...for a woman. As significantly in the eyes of the Soviet Union which placed its aviators among those of ce...
    7: ...raight-line distance flight. The plan was to fly from [[Moscow]] to [[Komsmolosk]] (in the Far East)...
    9: ...hree women were decorated with "The [[Hero of the Soviet Union]]" award, the first females ever to receive...
    11: ...r as long as possible in order to discourage them from seeing combat. Raskova is credited with using ...
    17: ...[1943]]. The unit was given the very best of the Soviet bombers, the [[Petlyakov Pe-2]], while many male ...
  19. Krystyna Skarbek (11133 bytes)
    3: ...s in [[Germany|German-occupied]] [[Poland]] and [[France]]. She was the longest-serving and most capa...
    7: ...]]), and the couple soon moved to [[British East Africa]].
    9: ...vinced by her acquaintances, including journalist Frederick Voigt. She left for [[Hungary]], where in...
    11: ...].) Krystyna and Kowerski made good their escape from Hungary via the [[Balkans]] and [[Turkey]].
    15: ...andated [[Syria]] from the pro-[[Vichy]] [[France|French]] [[consul]]. Only German spies, some Polish...
  20. Larisa Latynina (2531 bytes)
    3: ...herson]], [[Ukrainian SSR]]) was a [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] [[gymnastics|gymnast]]. She holds the record fo...
    7: ...nina beat Keleti in the all-around event, and the Soviet team also won the team event. Latynina furthermor...
    9: ...in [[Rome]]. In the all-around event, she led the Soviet Union to take the first four places, thereby also...
    13: ...]] World Championships, finishing second with the Soviet team, and became a gymnastics trainer. She is a c...
  21. Proletariat (3268 bytes)
    1: The '''proletariat''' (from [[Latin]] ''proles'', offspring) is a term used...
    17: ... and argued that although the government of the [[Soviet Union]] claimed to be [[Marxist]], the distinct c...
  22. United Nations (29685 bytes)
    1: ... and/or some international diplomatic recognition from selected states, but are not UN members. For mo...
    5: The term "united nations" was coined by [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] during [[World War II]], to ...
    20: ...nited Kingdom]], the [[United States]], and the [[Soviet Union|USSR]] met to elaborate the plans at the [[...
    24: ... — [[Republic of China]], [[France]], the [[Soviet Union]], [[United Kingdom]], and the [[United Sta...
    26: ... land purchased by an 8.5 million dollar donation from [[John D. Rockefeller, Jr.]], and designed by a...
  23. Trombone (15819 bytes)
    6: The word ''trombone'' derives from [[Italian language|Italian]] ''tromba'' —...
    12: ...]] in English. This was not a distinct instrument from the trombone, but rather a different name used ...
    14: ...ugh the size of a trombone choir can vary greatly from five or six to 20 or more members).
    18: ...que music|Baroque]]) literature is often borrowed from other instruments, usually [[cello]] or [[basso...
    26: ...s almost completely extended. Extending the slide from one position to the next lowers the pitch by on...
  24. Balalaika (5108 bytes)
    18: ...ique is the use of the [[left]]-hand [[thumb]] to fret notes on the bottom string, particularly on the...
    24: ...om [[Central Asia]], from whence several kinds of fretted long-necked [[chordophone]]s stem, including...
    26: ... Asian instruments described above. Similarly, [[fret]]s on earlier balalaikas were made of animal gu...
    28: ...particularly with the ''[[skomorokh]]s'', sort of free-lance musical [[jester]]s whose tunes ridiculed...
    30: ...l, is quite difficult to reconcile when one is confronted with the fact that at various times in Russi...
  25. Eurasia (4541 bytes)
    2: [[Image:Eurasia.jpg|right|thumb|African-Eurasian aspect of [[the Blue Marble|Earth]]]...
    3: ...organizations of or affairs concerning the [[post-Soviet states]].
    9: ...graphically separated from each other as they are from Europe.
    11: ...d into [[West Eurasia]] (often including [[North Africa]]) and [[East Eurasia]], and they are further ...
    13: ... most Asian migrants traditionally tended to come from the Pacific-rim countries, thus the contrasting...
  26. Africa (35389 bytes)
    1: ...graphic.jpg|thumb|A satellite composite image of Africa]]
    3: '''Africa''' is the [[world]]'s second-largest [[contine...
    6: ...onAfrica.png|thumb|World map showing location of Africa]]
    8: ...ontinent, as the [[Africa (province)|province of Africa]] with its capital [[Carthage]], corresponding...
    10: The origin of ''Afer'' may either come from:
  27. Europe (23835 bytes)
    6: ...the third largest continent after [[Asia]] and [[Africa]]. The population of Europe is roughly 705,500...
    13: ...which means "sunrise" and is the land to the east from a [[Mesopotamian]] perspective.
    18: ...g large colonial empires with vast holdings in [[Africa]], [[the Americas]], and [[Asia]].
    20: ...to power and set out on a conquest, forming a new French empire that soon collapsed. After these conqu...
    22: ...Economic Consequences|aftermath of World War I]]. From the end of [[World War II]] through the end of ...
  28. Asia (16910 bytes)
    4: ...defined by subtracting the [[Europe]]an peninsula from Eurasia. [[geology|Geologically]] and [[geograp...
    6: ...sia and Europe: the demarcation between Asia and Africa is the [[isthmus]] of [[Suez Canal|Suez]]. The...
    12: ...o the Semitic word 'erebu', which means "to set". From a Middle Eastern perspective, the east (Asia) i...
    24: ...rderline cases between Asia and Europe, Asia and Africa and Asia and Oceania.
    43: * Former [[Soviet]] states in the [[Caucasus]] region.
  29. United States (59108 bytes)
    36: established_dates = From [[Great Britain]]<br> [[July 4]], [[1776]]<br>[...
    58: ...on of the Americas]], [[thirteen colonies]] split from Great Britain and formed the United States, the...
    60: ... the [[Emancipation Proclamation]], mandating the freedom of all slaves in states in rebellion, though...
    62: ...e U.S. acquired a number of overseas possessions, from [[Cuba]] to the [[Philippines]], though it gave...
    66: ...two "[[superpower]]s". With the [[collapse of the Soviet Union]], the U.S. emerged as the world's leading ...
  30. Economy of Afghanistan (14517 bytes)
    1: ...cess to these basic necessities by prioritizing infrastructure development, education, housing develop...
    4: ...ed much of the underdeveloped country's limited infrastructure and disrupted normal patterns of econom...
    6: ... the IMF to US$6.5 billion, after adding proceeds from [[opium]] products.
    11: ...as did the disruption to transportation resulting from ongoing conflict.
    13: ...rated further due to damage and neglect resulting from war and the absence of an effective central gov...
  31. Ethiopia (20233 bytes)
    1: ...aintained independence during the [[Scramble for Africa]], and continued to do so until [[1936]], when...
    40: ...gdom|British]]) [http://www.civicwebs.com/cwvlib/africa/ethiopia/pankhurst/history_of_northern_ethiopi...
    59: ...at powers of his time. It was at this time that [[Frumentius]] introduced [[Christianity]] into the co...
    61: ...r]]), basing their claims on their direct descent from [[Solomon]] and the queen of [[Sheba]].
    67: ... the southern entrance of the Red Sea, was bought from the local sultan in March 1870 by an Italian co...
  32. Netherlands (35958 bytes)
    12: ...motto = ''Je Maintiendrai''<br>([[French language|French]]: "I will maintain")|
    14: ...es = [[Dutch language|Dutch]], [[Frisian language|Frisian]] <sup>1</sup> |
    40: established_dates = [[Eighty Years' War|From Spain]]<br/>[[May 23]], [[1568]]<br/>[[January ...
    64: After gaining formal independence from the [[Spanish Empire]] under [[Philip IV of Spa...
    68: ...xembourg seceded because its laws prevented women from becoming Head of State. Luxembourg turned to th...
  33. Turkmenistan (10788 bytes)
    34: | From [[Soviet Union]]<br/>&nbsp;[[October 27]], [[1991]]<br/>&n...
    48: ...tan''', once known as the ''[[Turkmen SSR|Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic]]'' is a country in [[Central ...
    52: ...has been populated since ancient times, as armies from one empire to another decamped on their way to ...
    60: ...epublics of the Soviet Union|republics]] of the [[Soviet Union]] in [[1924]]. At this time the modern bord...
    62: ...ndence. It has kept its [[Communist Party of the Soviet Union|Communist]] leader, [[Saparmurat Niyazov]] ...
  34. Kazakhstan (26806 bytes)
    1: ...an is also a former republic of the now extinct [[Soviet Union]].
    3: ...ww.stat.kz/en/info/stat-bul/stbr&e0303.pdf], down from 16,464,464 in [[1989]] [http://www.stat.kz/ru/d...
    49: | '''[[Collapse of the Soviet Union|Independence]]'''&nbsp;- Declared&nbsp;-
    50: | From [[Soviet Union]], [[December 16]], [[1991]]
    70: ...an since the [[1st century BC|first century BC]]. From the [[4th century|fourth century AD]] through t...
  35. Greece (54754 bytes)
    1: ...cially influential in [[Europe]], [[Asia]] and [[Africa]].
    11: ...#932;&#927;&#931;<br>''([[Greek language|Greek]]: Freedom or Death)''
    29: ...]'''<br>&nbsp;- Declared<br>&nbsp;- Recognised || From the [[Ottoman Empire]]<br/>[[25 March]] [[1821]...
    42: | '''[[National anthem]]''' || [[Hymn to Freedom]]
    52: ...especially influential in [[Europe]], [[Northern Africa]] and the [[Middle East]]. Today, Greece is a ...
  36. Azerbaijan (15031 bytes)
    2: ...h an eastern coast on the [[Caspian Sea]]. It has frontiers with [[Russia]] in the north, [[Georgia (c...
    39: | '''[[Collapse of the Soviet Union|Independence]]'''<br/>&nbsp;&ndash; Date
    40: | From [[Soviet Union]]<br/>&nbsp;[[30 August]] [[1991]]
    54: ...an." The most common theory is that it is derived from "Atropatan." [[Atropat]] was the [[satrap]] at ...
    71: ...ies]]. It also underwent a brief period of feudal fragmentation in the mid-18th to early 19th centurie...
  37. People's Republic of China (40848 bytes)
    1: ...y, it remains a one-party [[authoritarian]] state from its true communist days.
    15: ...time in a century, and there was development of infrastructure, industry, healthcare, and education, w...
    19: ...r. Mao remained head of the Party but was removed from day to day management of economic affairs which...
    23: ...ut) and a much wider range of personal rights and freedoms for average Chinese as evidence of the succ...
    27: ...ost Chinese dissidents living abroad, many people from Hong Kong or Taiwan, ethnic minorities like Tib...
  38. Germany (46412 bytes)
    1: ...[[Austria]] and [[Switzerland]], to the west by [[France]], [[Belgium]], the [[Netherlands]] and [[Lux...
    13: ...[[German language|German]]: Unity and Justice and Freedom)
    15: ...tschen]]<br>3rd stanza (''Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit'')
    51: ...[[Romany language|Romany]] and [[Frisian language|Frisian]] are officially recognised and protected as...
    61: ...[[prince-elector]]s of the [[Holy Roman Empire]]. From ''Bildatlas der Deutschen Geschichte'' by Dr Pa...
  39. Kyrgyzstan (23226 bytes)
    1: ... capital is [[Bishkek]]. Once a republic of the [[Soviet Union]], Kyrgyzstan has been independent since 19...
    35: sovereignty_type = [[History of the Soviet Union (1985-1991)|Independence]] |
    37: established_dates = From the [[Soviet Union]]<br> [[31 August]] [[1991]]<br> [[December...
    52: ...led along the [[Yenisey River]], where they lived from the [[6th century|6th]] until the [[8th century...
    56: ...lic]]. On [[December 5]], [[1936]], the [[Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic]] (SSR) was established as a f...
  40. Slovakia (19892 bytes)
    56: ...vs. Federal Republic of Germany or [[France]] vs. French Republic.
    63: ...tained a chain of outposts around the [[Danube]]. From 20 to 50 AD, the Kingdom of [[Vannius]], a barb...
    67: ...hs]] (from the 14th century), and [[Hungarians]] (from the late Middle Ages).
    69: A huge population loss resulted from the invasion of the [[Mongols]] in 1241 and the...
    71: ...especially in rural areas. As the Turks retreated from Hungary in the 18th century, Slovakia's influen...
  41. Romania (19812 bytes)
    57: ...g a derivate of the word "[[Ancient Rome|Roman]]" from [[Latin]]). Also, "''&#354;ara Rom⮥asc&#259;'...
    62: ...er Emperor [[Trajan]] in two campaigns stretching from [[101]] to [[106]], and the core of their kingd...
    70: ...der direct military and economic control of the [[Soviet Union|USSR]] until 1958.
    72: ...equired the CDR to resign en masse after 200 days from a mixed coalition government (some members had ...
    164: ...tructural reform programme, but reform remained a frustrating stop-and-go process until [[2000]], when...
  42. Hungary (18459 bytes)
    57: ...lemagne]]. The decline of the kingdom of the East Franks, after the death of Charlemagne, was favourab...
    61: ...inus of Hungary|Matthias Corvinus]] ruled Hungary from 1458 to 1490. He strengthened Hungary and its g...
    63: ...oday's Hungary by the end of the [[17th century]] from the Ottoman Empire.
    65: ...n absolutism resulted in the unsuccessful popular freedom fight led by a Transylvanian nobleman, [[Fer...
    67: ...apse following [[World War I]]. Hungary separated from Austria on [[October 31]], [[1918]].
  43. Bangladesh (29715 bytes)
    34: | from [[Pakistan]]<br>[[March 26]] [[1971]]
    47: | '''[[National Fruit]]''' || [[Jackfruit]]
    65: ...], and there are even claims of social structures from around [[1000 BC]]. Early civilizations had Bud...
    67: ...ntrolled the region by the late [[18th century]], from which the [[United Kingdom|British]] extended [...
    69: ...ment of Pakistan changed the name of the province from [[East Bengal (province)|East Bengal]] to [[Eas...
  44. Tajikistan (10867 bytes)
    36: | '''[[Collapse of the Soviet Union|Independence]]'''<br/>&nbsp;&ndash; Date
    37: | From [[Soviet Union]]<br/>&nbsp;[[September 9]], [[1991]]
    51: ...90;&#1086;&#1085;), formerly known as the ''Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic'', is a country in [[Central A...
    60: ...ik SSR]], and it remained relatively behind other Soviet Republics in living conditions, education and ind...
    69: ...m to have been flawed, arrousing many accusations from opposition parties that President Emomali Rakhm...
  45. Vietnam (18265 bytes)
    6: ...[[People's Republic of China]] and the [[Union of Soviet Socialist Republics]] while the South was support...
    8: ...r Powers Resolution]] prevented the United States from defending South Vietnam. [[Fall of Saigon|Saigo...
    10: ...public of Vietnam."'' Refugees continued fleeing from Vietnam through the rest of the decade, and int...
    12: ...tnam invaded [[Cambodia]] and removed [[Pol Pot]] from power and into hiding, thereby decisively stabi...
    17: ...ut in practice it receives most of its directives from the party. Although there has been some effort ...
  46. Cuba (25106 bytes)
    10: ...ll Cubans.After some delay, a [[Constitution]] of Soviet inspiration was adopted in [[1976]].
    12: ...ge Nuclear Missiles were installed in Cuba by the Soviet Union and aimed at the USA. This led to an Intern...
    14: ... to the U.S., mostly aboard vessels that departed from the U.S. Eventually the U.S. stopped the flow ...
    16: ...eople, our country could not have survived the confrontation with imperialism".
    18: ...espite being denied access to [[development aid]] from the [[IMF]] and [[World Bank]] because Cuba is ...
  47. Finland (29511 bytes)
    1: ...[[Gulf of Bothnia]] to the west. Finland has land frontiers with [[Sweden]], [[Norway]] and [[Russia]]...
    33: | style="vertical-align: top;" | From [[Russia]]<br/>[[6 December]] [[1917]]<br/>[[22...
    51: ..., [[chisel]]s from [[Lake Onega]], and spearheads from North Scandinavia. Currently it is considered p...
    57: ...e and in Russian propaganda promising "liberation from Swedish oppression".
    63: ...and industrial workers who despite [[universal suffrage]] in [[1906]] had found themselves without pol...
  48. Pakistan (74854 bytes)
    39: established_dates = From the [[United Kingdom]]<br />[[1947-08-14]]<br /...
    62: ...nions of the divided Greek empire of [[Bactria]] (from the areas of the [[Panjshir province|Panjshir]]...
    64: The Kushan kingdom stretched from modern-day [[Uzbekistan]] to northwestern India...
    69: ... by the [[Mughals]] from [[1526]] until [[1739]]. From 1739 until the early [[19th century]] the entir...
    72: ... the British by the Muslim leader [[Tipu Sultan]] from 1749 to 1799 left the remnants of the Mughal Em...
  49. Israel (51605 bytes)
    1: ...ia]], [[Jordan]], and [[Egypt]] (listed clockwise from north to south). Israel shares the coastlines o...
    38: established_dates = From the League of Nations mandate administered by t...
    60: ...ncia [[Syria Palaestina]]'', a Greek name derived from ''[[Philistine]]'' ([[Hebrew language|Hebrew]] ...
    68: ...], before becoming part of the [[Ottoman Empire]] from 1517 until 1918. Throughout the centuries the s...
    73: ...nd. The Jewish population in the region increased from 11% of the population in 1922 to 30% by [[1940]...
  50. Afghanistan (23568 bytes)
    36: | From [[United Kingdom|the British]]<br>[[1919]]
    55: ...Afghanistan. The remainder of the name originates from the [[Persian language|Persian]] word ''st&#257...
    64: ...ans. The Mohammadzay furnished the Saddozay kings frequently with top counsellors, who served occasion...
    70: ... years later in [[1989]]. For more details, see [[Soviet invasion of Afghanistan]].
    72: ...an were able to capture 90% of the country, aside from [[Northern Alliance]] strongholds primarily in ...
  51. Democratic Republic of the Congo (21095 bytes)
    1: ...ocidal]] [[Second Congo War]] (known also as the African World War), the deadliest conflict since [[Wo...
    16: official_languages = [[French language|French]] |
    41: established_dates = From [[Belgium]] <br> [[June 30]], [[1960]] |
    42: currency = [[Congolese franc]] |
    50: ...on regression; other PPP figures are extrapolated from the latest International Comparison Programme b...
  52. Ukraine (22193 bytes)
    3: ...independent once more following the [[fall of the Soviet Union]] in [[1991]].
    37: ... Union|Independence]]'''<br>&nbsp; Date || From [[Soviet Union]]<br>[[August 24]] [[1991]]
    55: ...r the name. Most translate it as "borderland" or "frontier" (compare [[Krajna]], [[Krajina]] - in Poli...
    60: ... the speakers of the Proto-Iranian language moved from Ukraine to the southeast but many also remained...
    64: ...us' was founded by [[Varangian]]s, Scandinavians, from present-day [[Sweden]]. The Varangians later be...
  53. Angola (15614 bytes)
    1: '''Angola''' is a country in southwestern [[Africa]] bordering [[Namibia]], [[Congo-Kinshasa]], a...
    38: established_events = From [[Portugal]] |
    48: ...on regression; other PPP figures are extrapolated from the latest International Comparison Programme b...
    61: ...n overseas province, also called Portuguese West Africa. When Portugal refused a decolonization proces...
    63: * the [[National Liberation Front of Angola]] (''Frente Nacional de Liberta磯 de Angola'', FNLA), wi...
  54. Mammoth (4333 bytes)
    16: ...mmoth lived in temperate and northern climes: the frozen remains of woolly mammoths have been found in...
    18: ...ave been proposals to [[cloning|clone]] freshly defrosted mammoths in order to revive the species.
    20: In addition to occasional frozen mammoths, large amounts of mammoth [[ivory]] ...
    24: ...er, not enough genetic material has been found in frozen mammoths for this to be attempted [http://rbc...
    28: ...of [[Siberia]]. The pilot of a [[World War II]] [[Soviet Union]] courier plane reported seeing a herd of f...
  55. Aswan Dam (6375 bytes)
    5: ...er Nile floods in the summer every year as waters from [[Ethiopia]] flow down the river. These floods ...
    13: ...Cold War]] struggle for influence in Africa the [[Soviet Union]] stepped in 1958 and possibly a third of t...
    15: ...d capacity in 1976. The reservoir raised concerns from archaeologists and a rescue operation was begun...
    18: ...sser, though it is struggling due to its distance from any significant markets.
    23: ... coastline barriers, due to lack of new sediments from floods, will eventually cause loss of the brack...
  56. Minnesota (26682 bytes)
    37: Its name is from the [[Lakota#The_Dakota|Dakota people's]] name ...
    54: Much of the state was purchased from [[France]] as part of the [[Louisiana Purchase]], alth...
    59: ...e [[M鴩s people (Canada)|M鴩s]] people, a mixed French and Native American culture, were a presence ...
    61: ...ndia]]ns, [[Middle East]]erners, and the former [[Soviet bloc]] all being well-represented. Some [[China|...
    63: ...with the early Scandinavian immigrants. Families frequently own or share [[cabin]]s on central and no...
  57. List of people by name: U (6532 bytes)
    17: *[[Albert Uderzo|Uderzo, Albert]], (born 1927), French cartoonist of ''[[Asterix]]'' fame
    25: *[[Fritz von Uhde|Uhde, Fritz von]], (1848-1911), German painter
    52: *[[Frederick D. Underwood|Underwood, Frederick D.]], president of the [[Erie Railroad]] [...
    106: *[[Dmitri Ustinov|Ustinov, Dmitri]], Soviet defense minister
    110: ...[Maurice Utrillo|Utrillo, Maurice]], (1883-1955), French painter
  58. List of people by name: Y (12717 bytes)
    46: *[[Frank Yates|Yates, Frank]], ([[1902]]-[[1994]]), statistician
    48: ...[[1747]]-[[1826]]), Continental Congress delegate from [[New York]]
    57: *[[Yazdegerd I of Persia]], from [[399]] to [[420]].
    58: *[[Yazdegerd II of Persia]], from [[438]] to [[457]].
    59: *[[Yazdegerd III of Persia]], from [[632]] to [[651]].
  59. History of the United States (21226 bytes)
    12: ...an American spirit and culture which was distinct from that of its European founders.
    17: ...his period the United States won its independence from the [[Kingdom of Great Britain]] during the [[A...
    22: ...sippi River waterway, removed the French presence from the western border of the United States, and pr...
    24: ...The United States, dependent on European revenues from the export of agricultural goods, tried to expo...
    26: ...r]], Britain sought to impose a stranglehold over French overseas trade ties. Thus, in retaliation aga...
  60. Solar system (21174 bytes)
    26: **[[Planetesimal]]s, from which the planets were originally formed, are s...
    30: **[[Meteoroid]]s are asteroids that range in size from roughly boulder sized to particles as small as ...
    34: ... belt and [[scattered disk object]]s in the outer fringes.
    36: ...Sedna]], with a highly elliptical orbit extending from about 76 to 928 AU, does not obviously fit in e...
    37: ... Some of the dust is likely [[interstellar dust]] from outside the Solar System.
  61. Comet (30542 bytes)
    3: ..."dirty snowballs", comets are composed largely of frozen [[carbon dioxide]], [[methane]] and [[water]]...
    5: ...ances from the sun consisting of debris left over from the [[condensation]] of the [[solar nebula]]; t...
    9: ... the ion tail (gas) always pointing directly away from the Sun, since the gas is more strongly affecte...
    11: ...hs of kings or noble men, or coming catastrophes. From ancient sources, such as Chinese oracle bones, ...
    21: ...ncke]] has an orbit which never places it farther from the Sun than [[Jupiter (planet)|Jupiter]]. Shor...
  62. List of reference tables (55289 bytes)
    7: ... allowing the link to be accessible in the future from the toolbar.
    178: *[[List of largest optical refracting telescopes]]
    363: *[[Historical African place names]]
    371: *[[List of toponyms]] (with names derived from a place or region)
    398: *[[List of fruits]]
  63. Space exploration (14877 bytes)
    1: ...ce race]] between the [[United States]] and the [[Soviet Union]].
    3: ==From fiction to fact==
    6: ...n see and touch, a [[Gemini]] space capsule and [[Soviet]] [[rocket]]s. The [[Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center|...
    11: From a spaceflight perspective, the definition of sp...
    13: ...lared [[Space Race]] between the two superpowers. Soviet dog [[Laika]] became the first animal in orbit on...
  64. Astronaut (7339 bytes)
    3: ... are said to hold [[astronaut wings]]. Astronauts from at least [[Timeline of astronauts by nationalit...
    7: ...74;&#1090; ''(kosmonavt)'', which in turn derives from the Greek words ''kosmos,'' meaning "universe" ...
    11: ... men and women into space in cooperation with the Soviet Union, and, to a lesser extent, the United States...
    13: ... The term was coined in May 1998 by Chiew Lee Yih from [[Malaysia]], who used it first in [[newsgroup]...
    20: ...nd [[Franklin Chang-Diaz]]. The furthest distance from Earth an astronaut has traveled was 401,056 km ...
  65. Flag (13245 bytes)
    3: A '''flag''' is a piece of [[cloth]] flown from a pole or mast, usually intended for signaling ...
    5: The study of flags is known as [[vexillology]], from the Latin ''vexillum'' meaning flag or [[banner...
    13: From the time of [[Christopher Columbus]] onwards, i...
    15: ...them, and by [[World War I]] these were withdrawn from the battlefields, and have been used only at ce...
    25: * The [[Tricolore|national flag]] of [[France]], also called the [[Tricolore]], which inspi...
  66. Albania (24647 bytes)
    25: | [[Alfred Moisiu|Alfred Moisiu]], <small>''President''</small>
    43: | From the [[Ottoman Empire]]<br>[[November 28]], [[19...
    66: ...highlands". Alternatively, "Albania" may derive from the ancient [[Proto-Indo-European|Indo-European...
    68: ...e-names ending in ''-esh'' that appears to derive from the latin ''-enisis'' or ''-esis'', between the...
    72: ...://foreignaffairs.tripod.com/armillotta/albania01_frosina.html Arb벥sh띮
  67. Aviation history (39698 bytes)
    3: ...rded history aspects of this desire have surfaced from time to time. The most well known is the legen...
    15: ...d and it was constructed in the late 20th century from materials that would have been available to da ...
    17: ...est. Yet there are sufficient proofs and examples from nature that such flights can take place without...
    19: ...n [[1783]]. [[Francois Pilatre de Rozier]] and [[Francois d'Arlandes]] went 5 miles (8 km) in a [[hot...
    21: ...[1852]]. Henri Giffard flew 15 miles (24 km) in [[France]], with a steam engine mounted on a dirigible...
  68. World War I (62979 bytes)
    2: ...rst time, the first mass bombardment of civilians from the sky was executed, and some of the century's...
    6: ...democratic Islamic state, Turkey. Activity by the French and British forces in the eastern part of the...
    8: ...nch defeat in the Franco-Prussian that would lead France to exploit a Balkan crisis as a precept for a...
    10: ...attlefield, and nearly that many more on the home front due to food shortages, [[genocide]], and groun...
    11: ...?E=0&O=03300083 French National Library] (Text in French language).]]
  69. World War II (58065 bytes)
    1: ...e:nagasakibomb.jpg|thumb|295px|[[Mushroom cloud]] from the [[nuclear explosion]] over [[Nagasaki]] ris...
    6: ...ranean Sea]], [[African Theatres of World War II|Africa]], the [[Middle East Theatre of World War II|M...
    8: ... a case of [[total war]], it involved the "[[home front]]" and [[Strategic bombing|bombing of civilian...
    10: ...] and the latter becoming satellite states of the Soviet Union. Western Europe largely aligned as [[NATO]]...
    18: ...7. Spain's fascist government lead by [[Francisco Franco]] was a great asset in trade to the Axis powe...
  70. Cold War (18329 bytes)
    2: ...scale war from [[1947]] until the collapse of the Soviet Union in [[1991]]. The term was popularized by th...
    7: ...]. The [[Korean War]]; the [[Vietnam War]]; the [[Soviet invasion of Afghanistan|Afghan War]]; and CIA-ass...
    9: ...ravel in the late 1980s. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia lost the superpower status ...
    12: ...ertain that a global nuclear war would not result from smaller regional wars, which heightened the lev...
    14: ...ty controlled by [[West Germany]] and the Allies) from [[East Berlin]] and the territory of [[East Ger...
  71. Vietnam War (102682 bytes)
    15: ... Vietnam]]<br><br>[[Viet Cong|National Liberation Front<br>(Viet Cong)]]<br><br />[[Image:Viet cong fl...
    31: ...ory of South Korea]]<br>[[Military history of the Soviet Union]]<br>[[Military history of Thailand]]<br>[[...
    33: The '''Vietnam War''' was fought from [[1957]] to [[1975]] between Vietnamese nationa...
    37: ...y experts consider the Vietnam War to just be one frontline in the larger [[Cold War]].
    41: ...for the Liberation of Vietnam|National Liberation Front]], a South Vietnamese opposition movement with...
  72. Timeline of United States history (1970-1989) (5473 bytes)
    1: ...meline of United States history]] concerns events from '''[[1970]] to [[1989]]'''.
    23: ...er Olympics]] in [[Moscow]] to protest [[1979]] [[Soviet invasion of Afghanistan]]
    44: ...oma Prieta earthquake]] kills 63 in greater [[San Francisco Bay Area]]
  73. History of the United States (1918-1945) (54688 bytes)
    7: ...concerning the [[United States]] troops returning from [[World War I]], "How Ya Gonna Keep 'Em Down O...
    27: ... sale or use of a substance was considered so far from the accepted powers of the U.S. Federal Governm...
    42: ...ase in sustained demand. Fixed exchange rates and free convertibility gave way to a compromise&mdash;t...
    46: ...st); and other signposts of economic health&mdash;freight carloads, industrial production, wholesale p...
    48: ...ld economic situation. [[Germany]] was suffering from hyperinflation of currency, and many of the All...
  74. History of the United States (1945-1964) (29139 bytes)
    8: ...ntil June [[1944]], more than two years after the Soviets had demanded it. In the meantime, the USSR suffe...
    11: ...President [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] (center), and Soviet First Secretary [[Joseph Stalin]] (right)]]
    13: ...s an agreement on the postwar status quo in which Soviet Union hegemony reigned over about one third and t...
    15: ...autarky versus exports, of state planning against free enterprise, were to vie for the allegiance of t...
    17: ...emerge intact&#8212;and even greatly strengthened from an economic perspective&#8212;was the United St...
  75. History of the United States (1964-1980) (21973 bytes)
    11: ..." ad, which featured a little girl picking petals from a daisy in a field, counting the petals, which ...
    15: ...vil rights]] divided conservative southern whites from the rest of the party (see [[Dixiecrat]]).
    20: ...e proposed, they continued to have strong support from both of the United States' major political part...
    27: ...Viet Minh]] (led by [[Ho Chi Minh]]) defeated the French colonial army in [[1954]], the colony was gra...
    29: ...]) was formed as a [[guerrilla]] movement drawing from the South Vietnamese peasantry and working clas...
  76. History of the United States (1980-1988) (36153 bytes)
    4: ...facilitated demographic shifts to the "frontiers" from the more industrialized states in the Northeast...
    8: ...economic base as municipalities lost the revenues from the enterprises that had departed. In the natio...
    14: ...ss African Americans have grown more marginalized from the mainstream of U.S. society than their count...
    17: ===The assault on U.S./Soviet ''D鴥nte''===
    18: ..., the hostage crisis in [[Iran]] in [[1979]], the Soviet invasion of [[Afghanistan]], the growth of intern...
  77. Venus (planet) (31010 bytes)
    1: '''Venus''', the second [[planet]] from the [[Sun]], is named after the [[Roman mytholo...
    3: ..., it always appears in roughly the same direction from Earth as the Sun (the greatest [[elongation]] i...
    7: ...me astronomers use ''[[Cytherean]]'', which comes from [[Cythera]]. Other less common adjectives incl...
    14: ...]'s, even though Venus is nearly twice as distant from the Sun and only receives 25% of the solar irra...
    16: ...k into space. This prevents most of the sunlight from ever heating the surface. Venus's [[Bolometer|...
  78. Mars (27704 bytes)
    4: '''Mars''' is the fourth [[planet]] from the [[Sun]] in the [[solar system]]. It is name...
    6: ...#x2642; (a circle with a small arrow pointing out from behind it), is a stylized representation of the...
    15: ...en summer and winter, giving rise to Earth-like [[frost]] and large [[cirrus cloud]]s [http://marsrove...
    18: ...tic field would have helped to protect the planet from [[cosmic radiation]]. Other explanations have a...
    22: Amongst the findings from the Opportunity rover is the presence of [[hema...
  79. January 17 (12233 bytes)
    5: * [[1562]] - [[France]] recognized the [[Huguenot]]s under the [[Ed...
    20: * [[1945]] - [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] forces capture the almost completely destroyed ...
    21: ...[Auschwitz concentration camp]] as [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] forces close in.
    22: ...disappears in [[Hungary]] while in [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] custody.
    25: ...Robbery]] - 11 thieves steal more than $2 million from an armored car in [[Boston, Massachusetts]].
  80. Mathematics (24164 bytes)
    1: ...bstraction]] and [[logic|logical]] [[reasoning]], from [[counting]], [[calculation]], [[measurement]],...
    8: ...[Day|days]], [[Season|seasons]], [[Year|years]]. From counting, naturally followed [[arithmetic]] (e....
    15: ...s from [[string theory]]. The mathematics arising from this immediately has relevance for the subject ...
    23: ...ians wanted their theorems to follow mechanically from a few simple incontrovertible truths and for th...
    28: ... That is, mathematical knowledge exists separate from the physical world.
  81. World (6524 bytes)
    10: ...whole wide world"), which it is actually the most frequent sense in [[philosophy]].
    16: ...ide the community of believers. ''The world'' is frequently cited alongside ''the [[flesh]]'' and ''t...
    34: ...wo major blocs, scarcely using such terms as the "free world" as compared to the "communist bloc". Th...
    38: ...h as [[Australia]], [[New Zealand]], and [[South Africa]].
    40: ...ence, e.g. [[Warsaw Pact]] countries. Besides the Soviet Union proper, most of [[Eastern Europe]] was run ...
  82. Lightning (33113 bytes)
    10: ...shared some similarity with lightning. [[Benjamin Franklin]] endeavored to test this theory by using a...
    12: ... to a post with a [[silk]] thread. As time passed Franklin noticed the loose fibers on the string stre...
    14: ... had conducted similar experiments in [[France]], Franklin had suggested the original high-object-with...
    16: ...clothes singed, the engraver knocked out, the doorframe of the room split, and the door itself torn of...
    18: Franklin also invented the [[lightning rod]], likely...
  83. Cambodia (32076 bytes)
    9: ...ges = [[Khmer language|Khmer]]; [[French language|French]] and [[English language|English]] often unde...
    33: established_dates = From [[France]]<br>[[1949]]<br>[[1953]] |
    49: ...) and the [[Tonle Sap Lake|Tonle Sap]] (i.e. "the fresh water river"), an important source of fish.
    51: ...[[Cambodian People's Party]] is the ruling party. From 2005 on, a coalition that took one year to nego...
    57:
  84. Charles de Gaulle (41586 bytes)
    1: ''This article refers to the former French president, Charles de Gaulle. For the [[Paris...
    10: | [[President of France]]
    13: | From [[January 8]], [[1959]]<br> to [[April 28]], [[...
    40: ...|French military]] leader and statesman. ({{audio|fr-Charles_de_Gaulle.ogg|pronunciation of his name}}...
    42: ...ism]], which left a major influence in subsequent French politics.
  85. Abacus (7218 bytes)
    1: ...a calculation tool, often constructed as a wooden frame with beads sliding on wires. It was in use ce...
    8: ...ng the horizontal axis to spin all the beads away from the horizontal beam at the center.
    35: ...bead from the upper deck and (later) another bead from lower deck in each column of the Chinese abacu...
    43: ...for native Japanese were all made with all wooden frame. In this way the "thickness" of the soroban (f...
    55: ...ssian abacus is often used vertically, with wires from left to right in the manner of a book. The wire...
  86. List of computing topics (15876 bytes)
    201: [[Context-free grammar]] --
    272: [[Fragmentation]] --
    273: [[Free On-line Dictionary of Computing]] --
    274: [[Free Software Foundation]] --
    275: [[Free software movement]] --
  87. History of the world (21975 bytes)
    7: ...ble. Yet, humans had colonized nearly all the ice-free parts of the globe by the end of the Ice Age, s...
    12: ...of [[Australia]] and the [[Bushmen]] of southern Africa, did not use agriculture until relatively mode...
    14: ...y. However, these civilisations were so different from one another that they almost certainly must hav...
    29: ...their territory through conquest and colonisation from the beginning of the [[5th century BCE]]. By th...
    31: ...ed control. The pressure of [[barbarians]] on the frontiers hastened the process of internal dissoluti...
  88. High jump (8613 bytes)
    16: Period = from:1920 till:2004
    26: from:1922 till:end color:Basis
    57: ...r the event for the next four years. The elegant Soviet jumper radically sped up his approach run, took t...
    59: ...niversity of Maryland, flocked to Russia to learn from Brumel and his coaches. However it would be a ...
    61: ...ricans Dwight Stones and his rival, 5'8" (1.73 m) Franklin Jacobs, who cleared 2.32 m (7'7-1/2"), an a...
  89. List of chemists (10401 bytes)
    15: *[[Antoine Baum]], (1728-1804), French chemist
    16: *[[Claude Louis Berthollet]], (1748-1822), French chemist
    21: *[[Henri Braconnot]] (1780-1855), French chemist and pharmacist
    31: ...Sk&#322;odowska-Curie]], (1867-1934), Polish-born French radiation physicist
    44: *[[Jean Baptiste Dumas]], (1800-1884), French chemist
  90. Albert Einstein (43065 bytes)
    12: ...b|200px|Young Einstein before the Einsteins moved from Germany to Italy.]]
    20: ...e school to let him go with a medical note from a friendly doctor, but this meant he had no secondary-...
    22: ...r Maja was to later marry their son Paul, and his friend [[Michele Besso]] married their other daughte...
    26: ...ed his scientific interests with a group of close friends, including Mileva. He and Mileva had a daugh...
    33: ...ssary to accomplish his work. [[Abram Joffe]], a Soviet physicist who knew Einstein, in an obituary of Ei...
  91. Airline (29546 bytes)
    1: ...humb|right|250px|Photography of Air Kenya, Kenya Africa. Picture provided by [http://classroomclipart....
    7: The scale and scope of airline companies ranges from those with a single airplane carrying mail or c...
    11: ...mpanies. This occurs as regulators permit greater freedom, in steps that are usually decades apart. Th...
    15: ...ion provided more competition and greater pricing freedom resulted in lower fares and sometimes dramat...
    19: ... airlines form new business combinations, ranging from loose, limited bilateral partnerships to long-t...
  92. Extreme points of the world (6602 bytes)
    13: ...,911 [[metre|m]] (35,797 feet) <!--- Using figure from Mariana Trench article --->below sea level [htt...
    15: * The point farthest from the Earth's centre is the summit of [[Mount Chi...
    16: ...]] (the bottom of the Mariana Trench is 6366.4 km from the centre of the Earth).<!--- Other contenders...
    19: ... at a straight-line distance of 2648 km (1645 mi) from the nearest coastline.
    20: ...s larger in surface than the entire former [[USSR|Soviet Union]].
  93. Czech Republic (13856 bytes)
    74: ...ted Czechoslovakia fell within the [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] [[sphere of influence]]. In [[1968]], an invasi...
    75: In [[1989]], Czechoslovakia regained its "freedom" through a peaceful "[[Velvet Revolution]]"....
    149: ...([[Czech language|Czech]]: ''Odra'') river. Water from the landlocked Czech Republic flows to three di...
    156: ...st states, the Czech Republic has been recovering from recession since mid-1999. Growth in [[2000]]-[[...
    246: *''Much of the material in these articles comes from the [[CIA World Factbook]] 2000 and the 2003 U....
  94. Ronald Reagan (52721 bytes)
    23: ...-grandfathers had immigrated to the United States from [[Ballyporeen]], [[Ireland]] in the [[1860s]]....
    25: In [[1920]], after years of moving from town to town, the family settled in [[Dixon, Il...
    29: ...the next seven years, reportedly saving 77 people from drowning. Reagan would later joke that none of ...
    31: ...games, getting only the bare outlines of the game from a ticker and relying on his imagination and sto...
    35: ...] in the film ''[[Knute Rockne, All American]]'', from which he acquired the nickname ''the Gipper'', ...
  95. Gerald Ford (28942 bytes)
    18: ...tives]]; he was first elected to Congress in 1948 from [[Michigan's 5th congressional district]].
    20: ...friends of the U.S. At home, the economy suffered from [[inflation]] and [[recession]]. Ford came unde...
    27: ... America out of [[World War II]]. Ford graduated from law school in [[1941]], having coached football...
    36: ...73]]) he served as Minority Leader, Ford won many friends in the House due to his fair leadership and ...
    63: ...rican personnel from [[Vietnam]], in '[[Operation Frequent Wind]]'. On [[29 April]] and the morning of...
  96. Jimmy Carter (33280 bytes)
    21: ... Accords]], and the [[SALT II]] treaty with the [[Soviet Union]]. He failed to reform the tax system (due ...
    26: ...a [[hospital]]. Young Carter was a gifted student from an early age who always had a fondness for read...
    30: ...itute of Technology]], and received a B.S. degree from the [[United States Naval Academy]] in [[1946]]...
    32: ...t which left him with a permanently bent finger. From a young age, Carter showed a deep commitment to...
    34: ...; James Earl III, born in [[1950]]; and Donnel Jeffrey, born in [[1952]]), and gave birth to his daugh...
  97. John F. Kennedy (36524 bytes)
    22: ...arty (United States)|Democratic Party]] candidate from the North to be elected president, and the last...
    24: ...h most of his [[civil rights]] policies coming to fruition through his successor, [[Lyndon B. Johnson]...
    30: ...e history course. He graduated ''[[cum laude]]'' from Harvard with a degree in international affairs ...
    45: ...s, but had a mixed voting record, often diverging from President [[Harry S. Truman]] and the rest of t...
    47: ...ged marriage; he interviewed several of Kennedy's friends who reported the marriage as fact, and addit...
  98. Richard Nixon (32863 bytes)
    19: .... President to have ever [[resignation|resigned]] from office. His resignation came after a loss of p...
    22: ...tive evangelical Quaker observances as refraining from drinking, dancing and swearing.
    24: ...s of two of his brothers, one from cancer and one from a childhood accident.
    28: ...nity]] that competed with the already established Franklin Society. Nixon then went on to become the ...
    30: ...[[United States Navy]]. He could have been exempt from military service because of his Quaker religion...
  99. Dwight D. Eisenhower (37513 bytes)
    22: ... [[1909]] and he worked at Belle Springs Creamery from [[1909]] to [[1911]].
    26: ...ss]]es.{{fn|1}} His mother was active in the sect from 1895, when Dwight was five years old, until she...
    30: ...te)|Georgia]]. He then served with the Tank Corps from [[1918]] to [[1922]] at [[Camp Meade]], [[Maryl...
    34: ...[George V. Moseley]], Assistant Secretary of War, from [[1929]] to [[1933]]. He then served as chief m...
    36: ...] he had never held an active command and was far from being considered as a potential commander of ma...
  100. Harry S. Truman (30022 bytes)
    9: | preceded=[[Franklin D. Roosevelt]]
    32: <tr><td>'''Predecessor:'''</td><td>[[Franklin D. Roosevelt]]</td></tr>
    51: ...s]], succeeding to the office upon the death of [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]].
    58: ...the bulk of his formative years. After graduating from high school in [[1901]], Truman worked at a ser...
    61: ...eye and 20/400 in the left eye. Before heading to France, Harry was sent for training at [[Fort Sill]]...
  101. Franklin D. Roosevelt (74009 bytes)
    1: {{Infobox President | name=Franklin Delano Roosevelt
    18: ...f reform. His family and close friends called him Frank. To the public he was usually known as "[[FDR ...
    20: ...nal organization to preserve peace was brought to fruition as the [[United Nations]] after his death.
    22: ...nd his failure to advance [[civil rights]] for [[African Americans]]. Some conservatives such as [[Ron...
    26: ...matter of great pride to his great-great-grandson Franklin.
  102. Alberto Santos-Dumont (14938 bytes)
    1: ...<br>Santos-Dumont in his trademark Panama hat.<BR>From the archives of the [[Smithsonian Institution]]...
    13: ==Move to France==
    14: ...reto]], Minas Gerais, for the city [[Paris]] in [[France]]. The first thing he did there was to buy an...
    23: ... [[francs]] for flying his dirigible ''Number 6'' from the [[Parc Saint Cloud]] to the [[Eiffel Tower]...
    25: ...he world. He won several more prizes and became a friend to millionaires and royalty. In [[1901]] he w...
  103. Helicopter (20080 bytes)
    1: ...wing aircraft</b>. The word helicopter is derived from the [[Greek language|Greek]] words ''helix'' (s...
    23: ...tail rotor is sufficient to cancel out the torque fromt the main rotor, the helicopter will not rotate...
    29: ... amount of power required to prevent a helicopter from spinning is significant. A tail rotor can use u...
    42: ...the RPM is too high, damage to the main rotor hub from excessive forces could result. In general, RPM ...
    44: ... The cyclic is usually controlled by the stick in front of the pilot.
  104. Adolf Hitler (51456 bytes)
    11: ...hancellor of Germany|chancellor]]) of [[Germany]] from [[1933]] to his death. He was leader of the [[N...
    15: He led Germany from the depths of post-[[World War I]] defeat to be...
    20: ...z]] in the province of [[Upper Austria]], not far from the [[German Empire|German]] border in what was...
    24: ...s was impossible since the Jews had been expelled from Graz in the [[15th century]] and were not allow...
    25: ... Hitler's profession his family moved frequently, from [[Braunau]] to [[Passau]], [[Lambach]], [[Leond...
  105. March 18 (10594 bytes)
    7: *[[1229]] - [[Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor]] declares himself ...
    14: *[[1871]] - President of the [[France|French]] government [[Thiers]] orders evacuation of ...
    18: ...ng a failed [[United Kingdom|British]] & [[France|French]] naval attack on the [[Dardanelles]].
    19: ...Belarus]]. Government of [[Ukraine]] emigrates to France. Famine kills millions of Russians.
    25: ... [[Alps]] and agree to form an alliance against [[France]] and the [[United Kingdom]].
  106. March 20 (10075 bytes)
    11: ...France|Napoleon]] enters [[Paris]] after escaping from [[Elba]] with a regular army of 140,000 and a v...
    24: ...6]] &ndash; [[Tunisia]] gains independence from [[France]].
    26: *[[1965]] &ndash; In [[Naples]], [[Italy]], [[France Gall]] wins the tenth [[Eurovision Song Conte...
    27: ...h; The [[Jules Rimet trophy|World Cup]] is stolen from [[Central Hall]], [[London]]
    30: ...] is found guilty of the armed robbery of a [[San Francisco, California]] bank.
  107. March 21 (10586 bytes)
    8: ...t between [[United Kingdom|British]] and [[France|French]] forces near the ruins of [[Nicopolis]] in [...
    9: ...onic code|Code Napol鯮]] was adopted as [[France|French]] [[civil law]].
    16: ... [[Prime Minister of France|Prime Minister]] of [[France]]
    18: *[[1952]] - [[Alan Freed]] presents the [[Moondog Coronation Ball]], th...
    19: ...lice open fire on a group of unarmed black South African demonstrators, killing 69 and wounding 180
  108. List of astronomers (40322 bytes)
    34: *[[Eugene M. Antoniadi]] ([[Greece]], [[France]], [[1870]] &ndash; [[1944]])
    36: *[[Francois Arago]] ([[France]], [[1786]] &ndash; [[1853]])
    38: *[[Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander]] ([[Germany]], ...
    47: *[[Adrien Auzout]] ([[France]], [[1622]] &ndash; [[1691]])
    56: *[[Benjamin Baillaud]] ([[France]], [[1848]] &ndash; [[1934]])
  109. Russia (28007 bytes)
    4: ... [[Soviet Union]] Russia was called the [[Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic]] (RSFSR).
    6: ...notable, but is still far from that of the former Soviet Union.
    13: ... The Slavs constituted the bulk of the population from the [[8th century]] onwards and slowly assimila...
    17: ...ded the [[Russians |Russian people]] in the north from the [[Belarusians]] and [[Ukrainians]] in the w...
    23: ...unctional Christian state on the Eastern European frontier, allowing it to claim succession to the leg...
  110. Economy of Russia (68844 bytes)
    2: ...ly planned economy]] that was a hallmark of the [[Soviet Union]], and then its replacement by an economy o...
    5: ''Main article: [[Economic history of the Soviet Union]]''
    7: ...me, Soviet-era management practices, a decaying infrastructure, and inefficient supply systems hinder ...
    9: ...g to directives from the [[Communist Party of the Soviet Union|Communist Party]], which controlled all asp...
    11: ...an and annual plans were the chief mechanisms the Soviet government used to translate economic policies in...
  111. Politics of Russia (78325 bytes)
    2: ...cal system to follow nearly seventy-five years of Soviet rule. For instance, leading figures in the legisl...
    4: ...regions gained political and economic concessions from [[Moscow]]. Although the struggle between execu...
    8: ...rritory and population. Ethnic Russians dominated Soviet politics and government; they also controlled loc...
    10: ...an institutions in the RSFSR. Certain policies of Soviet leader [[Mikhail Gorbachev]] (in office 1985-91) ...
    12: ...chev's attempts to discourage Russia's electorate from voting for him, Yeltsin was popularly elected a...
  112. Sweden (27111 bytes)
    3: ...ttles with its neighbouring countries [[Denmark]] from the 12th century &ndash; 1710, and [[Norway]] i...
    19: ...[[Swedish language|Swedish]]: "Thou Ancient, Thou Free") |
    67: ...]] originated in a so-called "[[back-formation]]" from the plural form [[Swedes]] ([[Old English]] ''S...
    69: ...sia down to southern Europe. The [[Kievan Rus']], from which Russia takes its name, traces its heritag...
    73: ...untry today known as Finland was a part of Sweden from [[1362]] until [[1809]].
  113. Estonia (13391 bytes)
    37: ...- Recognised<br>&nbsp;- Lost<br>[[Collapse of the Soviet Union|Independence]]<br> &nbsp;- Declared<br> &nb...
    38: ...ebruary]] [[1920]]<br>[[June]] [[1940]]<br>From [[Soviet Union]]<br>([[16 November]] [[1988]])<br>[[20 Aug...
    66: ...s reinstated in 1992, after the collapse of the [[Soviet Union]]. It included a parliament called ''Riigik...
    68: ... [[Singing Revolution]] and the [[collapse of the Soviet Union]]. August 20 is now a national holiday in E...
    118: ...ompanies is a continuing process. With assistance from the European Union, the [[World Bank]] and the ...
  114. Geography of Estonia (3012 bytes)
    5: ...va]] and [[Petseri]] regions on Estonia's eastern frontier, which still remain contested bilaterally.
    48: '''Natural hazards:''' flooding occurs frequently in the spring
    50: ... with [[petroleum]] products, chemicals at former Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1,400 natur...
  115. Economy of Estonia (6977 bytes)
    10: ...s and greater prosperity than other regions under Soviet rule.
    12: ...for foreign investment are hallmarks of Estonia's free-market-based economy. Estonia also has made exc...
    14: ...nking sector exist. Foreigners are not restricted from buying bank shares or acquiring majority holdin...
    18: ...capability, a high-capacity grain elevator, chill/frozen storage, and brand-new oil tanker off-loading...
    25: ...rvative fiscal and monetary policies. Estonia has free trade regimes with [[European Union]] (which it...
  116. Demographics of Estonia (4738 bytes)
    1: ... principal ancestors of the Estonians had arrived from the east.
    3: ...y places strong emphasis upon education, which is free and compulsory until age 16. The first book in ...
    5: ... originate in 13th century chronicles. During the Soviet era, the [[Russia]]n language was imposed for off...
    7: ...ortion of ethnic Estonians in Estonia to increase from 61% to 68% in 2003.
  117. Latvia (12041 bytes)
    25: | [[Vaira Vike-Freiberga|Vaira V&#299;&#311;e-Freiberga]]
    36: ...ognised <br/>&nbsp;- Lost<br>'''[[Collapse of the Soviet Union|Independence]]'''<br>&nbsp;- Declared<br>&n...
    37: ...st]] [[1920]]<br />[[17 June]] [[1940]]<br>From [[Soviet Union]]<br>[[4 May]] [[1990]]<br>[[21 August]] [[...
    57: ...ence of the [[Germany|German]] [[Sword Brethren]] from the [[13th century]] onward. However, in the [[...
    61: ...ntry on [[17 June]] [[1940]] in accordance to the Soviet-German agreement ([[Ribbentrop-Molotov pact]]) of...
  118. History of Slovakia (43199 bytes)
    5: The oldest surviving archeological artifacts from Slovakia have been carbon dated to 270,000 BCE,...
    7: Other stone tools from the [[Middle Palaeolithic|Middle Paleolithic Er...
    9: ... Pie&#353;tany. Numerous necklaces made of shells from Cypraca thermophile [[Gastropoda|gastropods]] o...
    11: From an archeological standpoint, the discovery of d...
    13: ... years by the same tribes who created the pottery from the Massif Bukov頨ory.
  119. History of Christianity (35391 bytes)
    8: ...in the [[first century]] AD. Christianity brought from Judaism its [[scriptures]] (the [[Old Testament...
    10: ... on different interpretations of various passages from the Old Testament (or [[Tanakh]]).
    26: ...hurch]] is said to extend in an unbroken timeline from this period. This section will examine those f...
    45: *[[Justin Martyr]], convert from Greek philosophy
    67: ...hurch and Roman Emperor Constantine, we can infer from [[Athanasius]]' arguments against Arius some id...
  120. Tiger (11674 bytes)
    3: {{Taxobox_image | image = [[Image:LA1_082A.jpg|noframe|250px|Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica)...
    15: ...eir [[penis]]es, believed to be [[aphrodisiac]]s. From the destruction of its habitat, to the poaching...
    23: The ground of the coat may be any color from yellow to orange-red, with white areas on the c...
    25: ... is [[camouflage]], serving to hide these animals from their prey (few large animals have color vision...
    29: ...gers overpower their prey from any angle, usually from ambush, and bite the neck, often breaking the p...
  121. Long jump (2354 bytes)
    1: ...d) event in which athletes attempt to land as far from their take-off points as possible.
    3: ... layer of [[plasticine]] is placed immediately in front of the board to detect this occurrence) the ju...
    11: ...is held by [[Galina Chistyakova]] of the former [[Soviet Union]] who leapt 7.52 meters in [[Saint Petersbu...
  122. New Deal (82408 bytes)
    2: ...ams implemented between 1933-37 under President [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] with the goal of relief, rec...
    7: ...nses to the critical situation."<ref>Parker 2002, Friedman, ''Two Lucky People'' (1998) p. 59.</ref>
    11: ... Milton. [http://www.rightwingnews.com/interviews/friedman.php ''Interview with John Hawkins''. Right ...
    13: ...y, big city machines, labor unions, European and African-American minorities (now called "ethnics"), s...
    18: ... 1929&ndash;1933, unemployment in the U.S. soared from 4% of the workforce to 25%, while manufacturing...
  123. Cuban Missile Crisis (13015 bytes)
    1: ...Soviet Union]] and the [[United States]] over the Soviet deployment of [[nuclear weapon|nuclear missiles]]...
    5: ... threatened cities in the western sections of the Soviet Union. The Jupiter missiles were regarded by [[P...
    7: ...USSR and would provide little warning of a launch from Cuba.
    9: ...in Cuba, nor any plans to place any, and that the Soviets were not interested in starting an international...
    11: ===Soviet strategy===
  124. Republican Party (United States) (31573 bytes)
    7: senateleader= [[Bill Frist]]|
    22: ...f the Republican Party came from the Whigs, the [[Free Soil Party]], and [[Know-Nothing movement|Ameri...
    46: ...Lincoln]] in [[1860]] ended the domination of the fragile coalition of pro-slavery southern Democrats ...
    48: ... in the Confederacy), forcing drastic reforms and frequently giving former slaves positions in governm...
    50: ...l politics &ndash; albeit with strong competition from the Democrats, especially during the 1880s. Wit...
  125. List of national anthems (17969 bytes)
    4: ...s are listed only if they have an anthem separate from or in addition to that of their mother country.
    21: ...]''||''[[Let_us_all_unite_and_celebrate_together|African Union Anthem]]
    69: |[[Belize]]||[[Land of the Free]]
    75: |''[[Biafra]]''||''[[Land of the Rising Sun (national anthem...
    111: |[[Central African Republic]]||[[La Renaissance]] (The Rebirth)
  126. The Star-Spangled Banner (15265 bytes)
    3: ...ledBanner2.JPG|200px|thumb|right|Percy Moran drew Francis Scott Key reaching out towards the flag in [...
    4: ...d [[sheet music]]. Copies such as these were sold from a catalog of Thomas Carr's Carr Music Store in ...
    6: ...s]]. The [[lyrics]] were written in [[1814]] by [[Francis Scott Key]], a 35-year-old [[lawyer]] and am...
    9: ...ater Upper Marlboro, Maryland|Upper Marlboro]], a friend of Key's who had been captured in [[Washingto...
    15: ... popular [[England|English]] drinking song dating from around [[1800]], written by [[John Stafford Smi...
  127. Navigation (15650 bytes)
    7: ...n senses and knowledge, passed by oral tradition, from navigator to apprentice.
    20: ...[1976]], successfully navigated the Pacific Ocean from Hawaii to [[Tahiti]] using no instruments.
    39: ... accurate land-based fixes even hundreds of miles from shore. These were made obsolete by satellite na...
    43: ...measuring their [[bearing (navigation)|bearings]] from the ship. These [[lines of position]] can be pl...
    55: ...7 navigational stars at any time of day or night. From a single sight, a time within a second and an e...
  128. History of the Kurds (8244 bytes)
    3: ...re thought to have been non Indo-Europeans, apart from the original Mitanni leadership. However, Kurds...
    7: ...of history of tribes in overwhelming numbers who, from whatever quarter they may have sprung, belonged...
    11: ...iended, if we may judge from tradition as well as from the remains still existing in the country, by t...
    17: ... waste since the passage of [[Timur]], with Kurds from the Hakkiari and Bohtan districts.
    19: ...e Kurds, owing to the remoteness of their country from the capital and the decline of Turkey, had grea...
  129. Kurdistan (8785 bytes)
    9: ...urdish-inhabited areas of the Middle East and the Soviet Union in 1986.]]
    11: ...e globe and their land covers an area as big as [[France]]. The [[Kurdistan Province]] in [[Iran]] and...
    16: ...bility (one of the major reasons of conflicts in Africa and the Middle East).
    36: ... crushed by government forces when [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] protective forces were withdrawn. In the consti...
  130. Libya (12985 bytes)
    1: Libya is a country in [[North Africa]], bordering the [[Mediterranean Sea]], locate...
    3: ...sometimes referring to the entire continent of [[Africa]].
    53: Qadhafi rejected both [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] [[Communism]] and Western [[capitalism]] and cl...
    59: ...[[terrorism]]. All Libyan diplomats were expelled from the United States and the United States officia...
    67: ...man [[La Belle (discotheque)|La Belle]] nightclub frequented by U.S. servicemen on [[April 5]], which ...
  131. Scythia (22520 bytes)
    1: ... location and extent of Scythia varied over time, from the [[Altai]] region where [[Mongolia]], [[Chin...
    3: ...s as ''Ishkuzai'', who are reported as pouring in from the north some time around 700 BC, settling in ...
    7: ...Indo-European word for ''archer'' in turn derives from the [[Proto-Indo-European]] root *'''skeud''', ...
    9: ...riors, drawn after figures on an [[electrum]] cup from the Kul'Oba kurgan burial near [[Kerch]] ([[Her...
    21: ...f scholars conjecture that they migrated westward from [[Central Asia]] between [[800 BC]] and [[600 B...
  132. Persian Empire (26229 bytes)
    1: ...n because changing the name separated the country from its past. It also caused some Westerners to con...
    4: ...ek name for Iran, ''Persis''. This in turn comes from a province in the south of Iran, called ''[[Far...
    11: ...e Persians comes from an [[Assyria]]n inscription from c. 844 BC that calls them the ''Parsu'' (Parsua...
    13: ...ate]]. The Persians gradually conquered territory from the native kingdom of [[Elam]], including the i...
    19: ...of the empire. He moved the administration center from Persia itself to [[Susa]], near Babylon and clo...
  133. Berlin Wall (23423 bytes)
    3: ...tion barrier|barrier]] separating [[West Berlin]] from [[East Berlin]] and the surrounding territory o...
    7: ...|Mitte]], and the eastern districts of Berlin - [[Friedrichshain]], [[K?ick]], [[Lichtenberg]], , [[Pa...
    9: ...the [[Berlin Airlift]] by the Western Allies. The Soviets lifted the ineffective blockade the next year.
    11: ... Germany in preference to either West Berlin or [[Frankfurt]].
    13: ...ast Germany's economy was being subsidized by the Soviet government.
  134. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg (17212 bytes)
    1: [[Image:Rosenbergs.jpg|framed|The Rosenbergs]]
    3: ...rges remains controversial, though decades later, Soviet communications decrypted by the [[VENONA project]...
    7: ...[May 12]], [[1918]] in [[New York]]. He graduated from the [[City College of New York]] with a degree ...
    11: ...ecause they were sympathetic to communism (or the Soviet Union's role in the War) and did not feel that th...
    13: ...esisted efforts to share nuclear secrets, but the Soviet Union was able to produce its own atomic weapons ...
  135. History of Germany (53864 bytes)
    3: ... they exerted influence upon Western civilization from its very beginnings.
    5: ...known as the second Reich to indicate its descent from the medieval empire. By the same reasoning, [[A...
    12: ...ptive work about the Germanic people at the Roman frontier on the Rhine]]
    13: ...ic peoples thrust into [[Celts|Celtic]] territory from [[Schleswig-Holstein]], advancing to the [[Oder...
    15: ...nz]], [[Mainz]] and elsewhere to secure the Rhine frontier. In 9 AD a Roman army led by [[Publius Quin...
  136. Christmas (40060 bytes)
    3: ... from the house of [[David]], to redeem the world from [[sin]]. Early Christians celebrated more the...
    7: ...mas" is a contraction of "Christ's Mass", derived from the Old English ''Cristes m泳e''. It is often...
    13: ...ethlehem of Judea, the home of the house of David from which Joseph was descended, fulfilled the proph...
    15: ...ey presented Jesus with treasures of "[[gold]], [[frankincense]], and [[myrrh]]". While staying the n...
    17: ...here they could have gotten their gifts of "gold, frankincense, and myrrh". Astronomers and historian...
  137. Moon (37975 bytes)
    6: ...ll.jpg|250px|none|The Moon as seen by an observer from Earth]]
    7: <small><font color="white">The Moon as seen from Earth</font></small>
    190: ...', the terms ''selene/seleno'' and ''cynthion'' (from the [[Lunar deity|Lunar deities]] [[Selene]] an...
    192: The average distance from the Moon to the Earth is 384,403 [[kilometre]]s...
    194: ... and orbiting [[space probe]]s, starting with the Soviet [[Luna 1]] in [[1959]].
  138. Bohrium (3577 bytes)
    43: ...nts|synthesized]] in [[1976]] by a [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] team led by Y. Oganessian at the Joint Institut...
    46: ...earch) at Darmstadt were also able to confirm the Soviet team's results and produce bohrium, this time the...
    48: ...to honor the Danish physicist [[Niels Bohr]]. The Soviets had suggested this name be given to element 105 ...
    50: ...ment naming controversy]] as to what the elements from 101 to 109 were to be called; thus [[IUPAC]] ad...
  139. Dubnium (4200 bytes)
    47: ...entists later tried to confirm the [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] findings using more sophisticated methods but w...
  140. Nobelium (6700 bytes)
    53: ...onds). Their work was confirmed by [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] researchers in [[Dubna]].
    64: ...isotope]]s of nobelium range in [[atomic weight]] from 249.088 [[atomic mass unit|u]] (No-249) to 262....
  141. Plutonium (24623 bytes)
    176: ...converting several nuclear power plants in the US from [[enriched uranium]] fuel to [[MOX fuel]] as a ...
    178: ...re conducted without any kind of informed consent from the subjects of the experiment. The episode is ...
    181: .../sup>Pu remain from the birth of the solar system from waste of supernovae, because its half-life (80 ...
    188: ...cts). The Pu-239 can then be chemically separated from the rest of the material to give high-purity Pu...
    190: ...m production, it is necessary to remove the U-238 frequently, before significant amounts of Pu-239 can...
  142. Rutherfordium (3808 bytes)
    49: ...they could not reproduce the earlier synthesis by Soviet scientists.
    51: ...h Kurchatov]] ([[1903]]-[[1960]]), former Head of Soviet Nuclear Research.
    52: ...onor Ernest Rutherford, a noted nuclear physicist from [[New Zealand]].
  143. Scandium (10820 bytes)
    105: ...ition element]], scandium occurs in rare minerals from [[Scandinavia]] and it is sometimes classified ...
    117: ...enite]] and [[gadolinite]]. He named it Scandium, from the [[Latin]] ''Scandia'' meaning "Scandinavia"...
    124: ...ources of this element (which is never found as a free metal).
    126: ...fter [[tungsten]] is extracted from [[Zinnwald wolframite]].
    130: ...ndium is from military stockpiles from the former Soviet Union, which
  144. Seaborgium (4376 bytes)
    35: In June [[1974]], a [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] team led by G. N. Flerov at the [[Joint Institu...
  145. Titanium (20884 bytes)
    118: ... point]] of this element makes it useful as a [[refractory metal]]. Titanium is as strong as steel, bu...
    125: ... titanium dioxide are excellent reflectors of [[infrared radiation]] and are therefore used extensivel...
    143: ...amed it ''menachite''. At around the same time, [[Franz Joseph Muller]] also produced a similar substa...
    145: The metal has always been difficult to extract from its various ores. Pure metallic titanium (99.9%...
    147: ...ties of titanium when a European company set up a front for the US foreign intelligence agencies to pu...
  146. Uranium (27752 bytes)
    165: *beta (tetragonal) stable from 667.7 &deg;C to 774.8 &deg;C
    166: *gamma (body-centered cubic) from 774.8 &deg;C to melting point - this is the mos...
    170: ...up>233</sup>U isotope is also fissile and is made from <sup>232</sup>[[thorium]] by [[neutron]] bombar...
    184: ...natural uranium, because the [[mineral]] material from which they are made is typically high in uraniu...
    191: ... was found to be [[radioactivity|radioactive]] by French physicist [[Henri Becquerel]] in [[1896]], wh...
  147. Muslim (12217 bytes)
    13: * Qiyas - the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction.
    18: ...adith (singular ''Hadith'') - narrations reported from the Prophet Muhammad, his daughter Fatimeh Zahr...
    41: * Refraining from eating, drinking and having sex from dawn to dusk in the month of Ramadan (Sawm).
    42: ...an be strenuous. Also, one has to obtain a permit from the Saudi government which is granted based on ...
    76: ...des of existence, and then spread more slowly to Africa and Indonesia. This golden age is usually reg...
  148. Democracy (24363 bytes)
    4: ...&mu;&omicron;&kappa;&rho;&alpha;&tau;�mp;alpha; from &delta;&eta;&mu;&omicron;&sigmaf; meaning "the ...
    10: ...|slaves]], and foreigners being excluded from the franchise. Only an estimated 16% of the total popula...
    14: ...various forms of non-democratic rule. [http://www.freedomhouse.org/reports/century.html]
    24: *voting which is not truly free and fair (e.g., through intimidation of those v...
    27: ...e Soviet Union|CPSU]] before its [[History of the Soviet Union (1985-1991)|collapse]] in [[1991]], [[Iraq]...
  149. Election (15836 bytes)
    1: ...ment]]. Elections are held in many other settings from [[club]]s and societies to [[business]].
    6: ...ent into governmental authority is the holding of free and fair elections.
    8: ...age:Presidential-election-word-wall-animation.gif|frame|left| Animation provided by [http://classroomc...
    10: ...ected by [[citizenship|citizens]] who enjoy broad freedom to criticize government, to publish their cr...
    12: ...rom those beneficial biases that naturally result from an [[electorate]] that is equally well informed...
  150. Reindeer (6508 bytes)
    26: An unusual feature of the reindeer is that it has front teeth only on its bottom jaw; there are [[mola...
    33: Males usually split apart from the group and become solitary, while the remain...
    43: ... been drastically reduced since the fall of the [[Soviet Union]]. The fur and meat is sold, which is an im...
    48: ...''vaya''. The name ''Caribou'' is thought to come from a [[Mi'kmaq]] word that means "one that paws (t...
    55: ...a continuous distribution in the tundra [[biome]] from west to east across the Eurasian continent, inc...
  151. Siberian Husky (8100 bytes)
    66: ...re normally rather healthy dogs, living typically from eleven to fifteen years of age. Health issues i...
    69: ...ore enduring than the 100 120 pound (45 to 54 kg) freighting dogs then in general use, they immediatel...
    71: ...un to Nome]] which delivered [[diphtheria]] serum from Nenana by dogsled after the city was stricken b...
    73: ... [[1930]] the last Siberians were exported as the Soviet government closed the borders of [[Siberia]] to e...
    79: Apart from dogsled racing, they are very popular for recre...
  152. Humpback Whale (17123 bytes)
    18: ...]] (leaping out of the water), its unusually long front fins, and its complex [[whale song]]. The Hump...
    24: ...n each side of the mouth. [[Ventral]] grooves run from the lower jaw to the [[umbilicus]] about halfwa...
    52: ... (music)|note]]s that vary in [[amplitude]] and [[frequency]] in consistent patterns over a period of ...
    55: ... all the major [[ocean]]s, in a wide band running from about 60&deg; S to 65&deg; N [[latitude]]. It i...
    57: ... the other large whales. The population has grown from a low point of 20,000 at the [[1966]] moratoriu...
  153. Olympic Games (40925 bytes)
    1: ...pic Games''', runners relay the [[Olympic Flame]] from [[Olympia, Greece|Olympia]] to the opening cere...
    3: ...e|French]] nobleman, [[Pierre de Coubertin|Pierre Fr&egrave;dy, Baron de Coubertin]] in the late [[19t...
    15: From that moment on, the Games slowly became more im...
    25: ...t few centuries, similar events were organized in France and Greece, but these were all small-scale an...
    27: ...0&ndash;1871). He thought the reason was that the French had not received proper physical education, a...
  154. Henry A. Wallace (8151 bytes)
    1: [[Image:Henry A. Wallace.jpg|frame|Henry Agard Wallace]]
    5: ...m [[1910]] to [[1924]] and edited the publication from 1924 to [[1929]]. He experimented with breedin...
    7: ...Wallace]], had served as Secretary of Agriculture from [[1921]] to [[1925]].) Wallace had been a [[lib...
    10: ...t on the Democratic Party ticket with President [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]]. His inauguration took place...
    14: ... the phrase "Century of the Common Man", to the [[Free World Association]] in [[New York City]]. This ...
  155. Ancient China (39554 bytes)
    1: ...identity. These cultural and political influences from many parts of Asia as well as successive waves ...
    6: ...have reached China about 65,000 years ago from [[Africa]]. Early evidence for proto-Chinese [[rice pad...
    14: ...he earliest written record of China's past, dates from the [[Shang Dynasty]] in perhaps the [[13th cen...
    18: ... around [[2000 BC]] was unearthed. Early markings from this period, found on pottery and shells, have ...
    22: ...[[Zhengzhou]] and [[Shangcheng]]. The second set, from the later Shang or Yin period, consists of a la...
  156. Germany in the Middle Ages (53864 bytes)
    3: ... they exerted influence upon Western civilization from its very beginnings.
    5: ...known as the second Reich to indicate its descent from the medieval empire. By the same reasoning, [[A...
    12: ...ptive work about the Germanic people at the Roman frontier on the Rhine]]
    13: ...ic peoples thrust into [[Celts|Celtic]] territory from [[Schleswig-Holstein]], advancing to the [[Oder...
    15: ...nz]], [[Mainz]] and elsewhere to secure the Rhine frontier. In 9 AD a Roman army led by [[Publius Quin...
  157. History of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars (9742 bytes)
    12: Napoleon III's defeat brought an end to the French military protection for Pius IX and on Septem...
    16: ==From Unification to The First World War (1870-1914)=...
    18: ...ed unchanged, even if the kings usually abstained from abusing their extremely large powers (for examp...
    24: ...iver [[Battle of the Piave River|Piave]], not far from Venice. After another year of trench warfare, a...
    30: ...n City]]. He was initially in friendly terms with France and Britain, but the situation changed in [[1...
  158. Culture of Russia (14552 bytes)
    1: ...y complex and has changed under [[Czarist]] and [[Soviet]] rules and under the relgious leadership of the...
    9: ...came an offshooot version of the [[mosaic]] and[[ fresco]] traditions. Icon paintings in Russia are u...
    14: ...nstructivism]], and [[futurism]]. Notable artists from this era include [[El Lissitzky]], [[Kazimir Ma...
    16: ===Soviet Art===
    17: {{Main|Soviet Art}}
  159. Beluga Whales (10188 bytes)
    15: ... to simply as the '''Beluga''' - the word derives from the [[Russian language|Russian]] ''beloye'' mea...
    20: ...is the now-extinct ''[[Denebola brachycephala]]'' from the late [[Miocene]] period. A single fossil ha...
    36: ...r shallow inlets. These summer sites are detached from one another and a mother will usually return to...
    59: ...United States Navy]] and the navy of the former [[Soviet Union]] have used beluga in anti-mining operation...
  160. Gray Whales (7433 bytes)
    23: ...w waters in the lagoons there protect the newborn from [[shark]]s. After several weeks, the return tri...
    27: ...[benthic]] [[crustacean]]s which it eats sideways from the sea floor. It is classified as a [[baleen w...
    30: ...hale845.jpg|thumb|right|200px|A Gray Whale viewed from above]]
    35: ...d again. Gray Whales have been granted protection from commercial hunting by the International Whaling...
    37: ...ere being established in the region. Although the Soviet government denied these charges as recently as 19...
  161. List of U.S. military history events (12126 bytes)
    137: *[[John Fries' Rebellion]] (1799)
    153: *[[Franklin County War]] (Idaho, 1866&ndash;1872)
    175: *[[Francis Marion]] (1780&ndash;1782)
    204: *[[State of Franklin]] (~1784&ndash;~1790)
    207: *[[Free City of Tri-Insula]] (1861)
  162. Snow Leopards (2890 bytes)
    17: ...ghing up to 75 kilograms, it can be distinguished from other similar species by its proportionately lo...
    19: ...cluding domestic livestock. They also ambush prey from above when possible. Their diet consists of [[I...
    26: ...o Soviet mountaineers who summited all 5 of the [[Soviet Union]]'s 7000m peaks.
  163. Tigers (12435 bytes)
    3: {{Taxobox_image | image = [[Image:LA1_082A.jpg|noframe|250px|Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica)...
    15: ...eir [[penis]]es, believed to be [[aphrodisiac]]s. From the destruction of its habitat, to the poaching...
    23: The ground of the coat may be any colour from yellow to orange-red, with white areas on the c...
    25: ... is [[camouflage]], serving to hide these animals from their prey (few large animals have colour visio...
    29: ...gers overpower their prey from any angle, usually from ambush, and bite the neck, often breaking the p...
  164. Timeline of Middle Eastern History (12425 bytes)
    29: ...ificantly expanding it and transforming it from a fresh-water landlocked lake into a salt water sea.
    51: ...on of [[Sahara]]. The shift by the Sahara Desert from a habitable region to a barren desert.
    76: ... Major migration of Central Saharans into [[West Africa]] possibly due to [[climate change]] starting ...
    102: * The [[Cushites]] drive the original inhabitants from [[Ethiopia]], and establish trade relations wit...
    136: ...f the Caliphate under [[Al-Walid I]], who reigned from [[705]] - [[715]] ]]
  165. United States Republican Party (30737 bytes)
    6: senateleader= [[Bill Frist]]|
    21: ...f the Republican Party came from the Whigs, the [[Free Soil Party]], and [[Know-Nothing movement|Ameri...
    45: ...Lincoln]] in [[1860]] ended the domination of the fragile coalition of pro-slavery southern Democrats ...
    47: ... in the Confederacy), forcing drastic reforms and frequently giving former slaves positions in governm...
    49: ...l politics &ndash; albeit with strong competition from the Democrats, especially during the 1880s. Wit...
  166. George W. Bush (64926 bytes)
    25: ...00. He played baseball and rugby union during his freshman and senior years. He received a Bachelor of...
    27: After graduating from Yale, Bush enlisted in the Texas [[Air National...
    32: ...duty from 1972 to 1973, and that he was suspended from flying after he failed to take a required physi...
    38: ...In taped recordings of a conversation with an old friend, author Doug Wead, Bush said: &#8220;I wouldn...
    45: ...ver funds from his education trust fund and money from other investors. The [[1979 energy crisis]] hur...
  167. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (74009 bytes)
    1: {{Infobox President | name=Franklin Delano Roosevelt
    18: ...f reform. His family and close friends called him Frank. To the public he was usually known as "[[FDR ...
    20: ...nal organization to preserve peace was brought to fruition as the [[United Nations]] after his death.
    22: ...nd his failure to advance [[civil rights]] for [[African Americans]]. Some conservatives such as [[Ron...
    26: ...matter of great pride to his great-great-grandson Franklin.
  168. Holocaust (53541 bytes)
    6: ...estimates by historians of the exact number range from five million to over six million. Other groups ...
    10: The word ''holocaust'' originally derived from the [[Greek language|Greek]] word ''[[holokaust...
    16: The term has been frequently used to reference nuclear war, and in the...
    20: ...azi Holocaust which taken together distinguish it from other [[genocides in history]].
    24: ...dge, and renowned [[Psychiatry|psychiatrist]] [[Alfred Hoche]], the work was key to the formulation of...
  169. Maya hieroglyphics (3466 bytes)
    3: ...|right|thumb|An inscription in Maya heiroglyphics from the site of [[Naranjo]], relating to the reign ...
    7: .... Most surviving texts in Maya hieroglyphics are from pottery or monuments in sites that were abandon...
    13: ...ient writing system from the [[Olmec]]s (Schele & Freidel, 1990; Soustelle, 1984).
    16: ... for symbols whose general meaning was understood from context began to be developed. Prominent older ...
  170. Christmas around the world (98033 bytes)
    41: ...any songs and TV drama series presented Christmas from a lover's point of view, for example '[[Last Ch...
    48: ...banese Muslims celebrate Christmas with Christian friends. A poll showed that around two thirds of th...
    49: ...open all night for praying and people go to visit friends and families, often to villages in the mount...
    54: ...ël]]". Most of Christmas Greetings are spoken in French like "[[Joyeux Noel|Joyeux Noël]]" or Englis...
    62: ...rch Centre (also assistant parish priest of [[St. Francis Xavier]]'s Church) has lodged a formal compl...
  171. Pat Nixon (3962 bytes)
    1: [[Image:Pat nixon.jpg|right|frame|Pat Nixon]]
    2: ...d Nixon]] and [[First Lady of the United States]] from 1969-1974.
    5: .... Patrick]]'s babe in the morn" when he came home from the mines before dawn.
    12: ...age:Pat and Richard Nixon exit US plane.jpg|right|frame|Pat and Richard Nixon on the political trail t...
    13: ...nd there she met Richard Nixon, who had come home from law school at Duke University to establish a pr...
  172. Space Shuttle program (41074 bytes)
    4: ...capacity to recover satellites and other payloads from orbit and return them to Earth, this capacity h...
    16: ...e [[X-20 Dyna-Soar]]. In several instances groups from both worked together to investigate the state o...
    27: ...k to adjust for the launching point rotating away from it while in polar orbit &mdash; in a 90 minute ...
    35: ...e [[1970s]] this was high enough that the payback from the development had to happen very quickly or t...
    43: ...ced in an external tank instead of internal tanks from the previous designs. This allowed a larger pay...
  173. Students for a Democratic Society (3884 bytes)
    5: ...League for Industrial Democracy]] which descended from the Intercollegiate Socialist Society which was...
    7: ...n Statement included a strong denunciation of the Soviet Union, it wasn't enough for LID leaders like Mich...
    9: == From 1965 to 1969 ==
    11: ... SDS [[factions]] had a reputation for violent confrontation, including the [[Progressive Labor Party]...
    13: ...tions such as the [[Free Speech Movement|Berkeley Free Speech Movement]], a coalition of student group...
  174. February 22 (10772 bytes)
    9: * [[1495]] - King [[Charles VIII of France]] enters [[Naples]] to claim the city's thron...
    18: * [[1879]] - In [[Utica, New York]], [[Frank Woolworth]] opens the first of many of 5 and 1...
    24: ... United States]] to deliver a [[radio]] broadcast from the [[White House]].
    25: ...]: [[President of the United States|President]] [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] orders General [[Douglas Mac...
    32: * [[1979]] - Independence of [[Saint Lucia]] from the [[United Kingdom]].
  175. North Pole (13759 bytes)
    6: ...kwise as seen from above the north pole). Another frequently used definition uses the right-hand rule ...
    10: ...ar shape and [[gravity|gravitational]] influences from nearby planets and moons.
    14: ...o's orbit (best defined as the point most removed from the plane formed by the north-south and near-fa...
    23: ...'' is defined as the point in the Arctic farthest from any coastline, and is at {{coor dm|84|03|N|174|...
    27: ...International Astronomical Union]] have defined a framework called the [[International Terrestrial Ref...
  176. Saint Petersburg (36589 bytes)
    40: ...#1094;&#1072;). <!-- translator paraphrasing here from de: -->
    56: ...ikov]] Palace on the Neva Embankment, constructed from designs by Domenico Trezini in 1710&ndash;1716....
    62: ...d by [[Count Orlov]] and built in 1768&ndash;1785 from various sorts of [[marble]] to a Neoclassical d...
    72: ...reat]] and other [[tsar|Russian emperor]]s. Apart from these four principal cathedrals, which operate ...
    82: ...nd early 20th-century temples are all constructed from [[Russian Revival]] or [[Byzantine architecture...
  177. Jet engine (22370 bytes)
    1: ...ine (left of photo) prevents debris - or people - from being pulled into the engine by the huge volume...
    2: ...ir and combustion products) in one direction and, from [[Isaac Newton|Newton]]'s [[Newton's_laws_of_mo...
    4: The engine draws [[air]] in at the front and compresses it. The air is combined with [[...
    8: ...ssing into the ignition chamber prevents backflow from it and thus makes possible the continuous burni...
    15: ...f the maximum performance which could be obtained from it; the limit was essentially one of [[propelle...
  178. Karl Marx (38076 bytes)
    1: [[Image:Kmarx.jpg|frame|right|Karl Marx]]
    2: ...s of class struggle, summed up in the famous line from the introduction to the ''[[The Communist Manif...
    7: ... in [[Germany]]). His father Herschel, descending from a long line of [[rabbi]]s, was a lawyer and his...
    13:
    18: ...nsorship was in place, and non-Lutherans suffered from religious discrimination.
  179. Cult of personality (7246 bytes)
    2: ...p|leader]]. The term was coined by [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] leader [[Nikita Khrushchev]] soon after the dea...
    7: ..., had a quote from [[Mao Zedong]], and all quotes from Mao appeared highlighted in boldface or in red.
    15: ...is excuse to justify the [[Communist Party of the Soviet Union|Communist Party]]'s massive campaign of ren...
    16: [[Image:Stalincult.jpg|framed|left|[[Josef Stalin]] is often credited with ...
    20: ... public places, but convention or law forbid them from converting this respect into real political pow...
  180. December 9 (7837 bytes)
    12: ...P. B. S. Pinchback]] becomes the first serving [[African American]] governor of a U.S. state
    14: ...nded the [[feminist]] daily [[newspaper]], ''[[La Fronde]]''.
    15: ...arity|Law separating church and state]] passed in France
    18: ...my]] attacks [[Italy|Italian]] forces in [[North Africa]]
    22: ...ted States]] [[nuclear weapon]] secrets for the [[Soviet Union]]
  181. List of aircraft (2955 bytes)
    28: ** [[List of military aircraft of France|France]]
    29:
    37: ...of aircraft of the South African Air Force|South Africa]]
    41: ** [[List of military aircraft of the Soviet Union and the CIS|USSR and CIS]] - ([[USSR milita...

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