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Russian Revolution of 1917

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The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a political movement in Russia that climaxed in 1917 with the overthrow of the Provisional Government that had replaced the Russian Tsar system, and led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until its collapse in 1991. The Revolution can be viewed in two distinct phases. The first one was that of the February Revolution of 1917, which displaced the autocracy of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, the last effective Tsar of Russia, and sought to establish in its place a liberal republic. The second phase was the October Revolution, in which the Soviets, inspired and increasingly controlled by Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik party, seized power from the Provisional Government. The revolution affected both the urban areas and the countryside. While many notable historical events occurred in Moscow and St. Petersburg, there was also a broadbased movement in the rural areas as peasants seized and redistributed land. See also "Russian history, 1892-1920" for the general frame of events.

Contents

Causes of the Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was one of the most important events in modern world history. Its impact was evident in both Europe and America. Although Communism did not spread directly as a result of the Russian Revolution, it did spread indirectly to third world countries. Russia served as the model for third world countries to modernize their government through Communism. In addition, the fear of Communism spreading to America during the Cold War also portrays the immense global impact of the Russian Revolution. In any case, the Russian Revolutions of 1917 were broken down into two main parts: the overthrow of the tsarist regime (February Revolution) and the creation of the worlds first Communist state (October Revolution). The causes of these two revolutions encompass Russias political, social, and economic situation. Politically, the people of Russia resented the dictatorship of Tsar Nicholas II. The losses that the Russians suffered during World War I further weakened Russias view of Nicholas. Socially, the despotic tsarist regime had oppressed the peasant class for centuries. This caused unrest within the lower peasant class causing riots to break out. Economically, widespread inflation and famine in Russia contributed to the revolution. Ultimately, weaknesses in Russian polity, society and economy were the causes of the Russian Revolution.

Political

The political causes of the Russian Revolution were mainly brought on by the dictatorship of Tsar Nicholas II and Russias losses during World War I. Prior to the war, the educated classes (many educated in the West) of Russia resented the autocracy of Nicholas. After Russia had suffered staggering losses in World War I, however, the lower, uneducated classes came to despise him. In 1915, Nicholas took over command of the army, leaving his incapable wife Alexandra in charge of the government. By the end of October 1916, Russia had lost between 1.6 and 1.8 million soldiers, with an addition two million prisoners of war and one million who had gone missing. One can deduce that when one million men went missing, the morale of the Russian Army was not very high. Mutinies began to occur, and in 1916 reports of fraternizing with the enemy began to come in. Soldiers went hungry and lacked shoes, munitions, and even weapons. Rampant discontent lowered morale, only to be undermined by a series of military defeats. As this discontent and utter hate of Nicholas grew, the State Duma (lower class of Russian parliament comprised of landowners, townspeople, industrial workers, and peasants) issued a warning to Nicholas in November 1916 stating that disaster would overtake the country unless a constitutional form of government was put in place. Nicholas, however, ignored this. As a result, the tsarist regime in Russia collapsed a few months later during the February Revolution of 1917. In sum, Nicholass ineptness in handling World War I caused mass disorder within Russia and eventually led to the collapse of the tsarist regime.

Social

The social causes of the Russian Revolution mainly stemmed from centuries of oppression towards the lower classes and World War I. The peasant population of Russia, making up about 85% of the entire population of Russia, had been under harsh oppression from the upper classes and the tsarist regime. Many would associate serfdom with the Middle Ages. However serfdom was still going on in Russia in the nineteenth century. A small class of noble landowners controlled a vast number of indentured peasants. In 1861, Tsar Alexander II of Russia emancipated these peasants not for moral reasons, but because it was preventing Russia from advancing socially. Even though they lived under better conditions, the peasants were still dissatisfied since they had no land to work. As a result, the government drafted new terms that gave the peasants a certain amount of land to cultivate. However, the amount of land they were given was insufficient, thus mass riots broke out. This growing discontent among the peasants was only added to with the effects of World War I. The vast demand for factory production of war supplies and workers caused many labor riots and strikes. In addition, because of the fact that more factory workers were needed, peasants moved out of the country and into the cities. The cities soon became overpopulated and living conditions rapidly grew worse. Furthermore, as more food was needed for the soldiers, the food supply behind the front grew scarce. By 1917, famine threatened many of the larger cities. Overall, all of the aforementioned contributed to the vast discontent of the Russian citizens, which further made it necessary for a revolution.

Economic

The economic causes of the Russian Revolution were brought on almost entirely by World War I. Over fifteen million men joined the army, leaving an insufficient number of workers in the factories and on the farms. As a result, there were widespread shortages on food and materials. The railway network and transportation system grew inefficient and disorganized. What few stores were available could not get to where they needed to be quickly. As goods became more and more scarce, prices skyrocketed. Moreover, by 1917 famine threatened many of the larger cities. In the factories, workers had to endure terrible working conditions, twelve to fourteen hour days, and very low wages. Many riots and strikes for better conditions and higher wages broke out. Some factories agreed to the requests for higher wages, but wartime inflation nullified the increase. Although the economic causes did not play as big a role as the political and social causes, they did nevertheless contribute in some way to the revolution.

February Revolution

Main article: February Revolution.

The February Revolution came about almost spontaneously when people of Petrograd protested against the tsarist regime because of food shortages in the city.

There was also great dissatisfaction with Russia's continued involvement in the First World War. As the protests grew, various political reformists (both liberal and radical left) started to coordinate some activity. In early February the protests turned violent as large numbers of city residents rioted and clashed with police and soldiers. When the bulk of the soldiers garrisoned in the Russian capital Petrograd joined the protests, they turned into a revolution ultimately leading to the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II in a nearly bloodless transition of power.

A new Provisional Government was formed, also called the Duma, while elections were being planned. Between February and October revolutionists attempted to foment further change, working through the Petrograd Soviet or more directly. In July, the Petrograd Bolsheviks, in combination with the Petrograd anarchists, fomented a civil revolt. This revolt failed.

October Revolution

Main article: October Revolution.

The October Revolution was led by Lenin and was based upon the ideas of Karl Marx. It marked the beginning of the spread of communism in the twentieth century. It was far less sporadic than the revolution of February and came about as the result of deliberate planning and coordinated activity to that end. On November 7, 1917, Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin led his leftist revolutionaries in a nearly bloodless revolt against the ineffective Provisional Government (Russia was still using the Julian Calendar at the time, so period references show an October 25 date). The October Revolution ended the phase of the revolution instigated in February, replacing Russia's short-lived provisional government with a Soviet one. Although many bolsheviks (such as Leon Trotsky) supported a soviet democracy, the 'reform from above' model gained definitive power when Lenin died and Stalin gained control of the USSR. Trotsky and his supporters, as well as a number of other democratically-minded communists, were persecuted and eventually imprisoned or killed.

After October 1917, many Esers (Socialist-Revolutionaries) and Russian Anarchists opposed the Bolsheviks through the soviets. When this failed, they revolted in a series of events calling for "a third revolution." The most notable instances were the Tambov rebellion, 1919 - 1921, and the Kronstadt rebellion in March 1921. These movements, which made a wide range of demands and lacked effective coordination, were eventually crushed during the Civil War.

Civil war

Main article: Russian Civil War.

The Russian Civil War, which broke out in 1918 shortly after the revolution, brought death and suffering to millions of people regardless of their political orientation. The war was fought mainly between the "Reds", the communists and revolutionaries, and the "Whites" - the monarchists, conservatives, liberals and moderate socialists who opposed the Bolshevik Revolution. The Whites had backing from nations such as the UK,France,USA and Japan.

Also during the Civil War, Nestor Makhno led a Ukrainian anarchist movement which generally cooperated with the Bolsheviks. However, a Bolshevik force under Mikhail Frunze destroyed the Makhnovist movement, when the Makhnovists refused to merge into the Red Army. In addition, the so-called "Green Army" (nationalists and anarchists) played a secondary role in the war, mainly in Ukraine.

Final remarks

The Russian revolution was intended to spread across the world. Lenin(priot to 1915) and Trotsky said that the goal of socialism in Russia would not be realized without the success of the world proletariat in other countries, e.g. without German Revolution. However, till this day, this issue is subject to conflicting views on the communist history by various marxist groups and parties. Some state that it was Stalin who was the first to later reject this idea, stating that socialism was possible in one country. In fact, it was Lenin who stated the following in his 1915 article "On the Slogan for a United States of Europe": "...Uneven economic and political development is an absolute law of capitalism. Hence, the victory of socialism is possible first in several or even in one capitalist country taken separately. ...". The confusion regarding Stalin's position on the issue stems from the fact that he, after Lenin's death in 1924, successfully used this argument of Lenin's to defeat his competitors within the party by accussing them of betraying Lenin and, therefore, the ideals of the October Revolution.

Brief chronology leading to Revolution of 1917

Dates are correct for the Julian calendar, which was used in Russia until 1918. It was twelve days behind the Gregorian calendar during the 19th century and thirteen days behind it during the 20th century.

January - Bloody Sunday in St. Petersburg.
June - Battleship Potemkin uprising at Odessa on the Black Sea (see movie The Battleship Potemkin)
October - general strike, St Petersburg soviet formed
- Imperial agreement on elections to the State Duma - October Manifesto
  • 1906 - First State Duma. Prime Minister - Petr Stolypin. Agrarian reforms begin
  • 1907 - Second State Duma, February - June
  • 1907 - Third State Duma, until 1912
  • 1911 - Stolypin assassinated
  • 1912 - Fourth State Duma, until 1917. Bolshevik - Menshevik split final
  • 1914 - Germany declares war on Russia
  • 1915 - Serious defeats, Nicholas II declares himself Commander in Chief. Progressive Bloc formed.
  • 1916 - Food and fuel shortages and high prices
  • 1917 - Strikes and riots; troops summoned to Petrograd

Expanded chronology of Revolution of 1917

Missing image
Soviet_Union,_Lenin_(55).jpg
Vladimir Lenin


Vladimir Lenin, leader of the October Bolshevik Revolution

January

Strikes and unrest in Petrograd

February

February Revolution
26th -- 50 demonstrators killed in Znamenskaya Square
27th -- Troops refuse to fire on demonstrators, desertions. Prison, courts, and police stations attacked and looted by angry crowds.
Okhranka buildings set on fire. Garrison joins revolutionaries.
Petrograd Soviet formed.

March

1st -- Order No.1 of the Petrograd Soviet
2nd -- Nicholas II abdicates. Provisional Government formed under Prime Minister Prince Lvov

April

3rd -- Return of Lenin to Russia. He publishes his April Theses.
20th -- Miliukov's note published. Provisional Government falls.

May

5th -- New Provisional Government formed. Kerensky made minister of war and navy

June

3rd -- First All-Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd. Closed on 24th.
16th -- Kerensky orders offensive against Austro-Hungarian forces. Initial success.

July

2nd -- Russian offensive ends. Trotsky joins Bolsheviks.
4th -- Anti-government demonstrations in Petrograd
6th -- German and Austro-Hungarian counter-attack. Russians retreat in panic, sacking the town of Tarnopol. Arrest of Bolshevik leaders ordered.
7th -- Lvov resigns. Kerensky is new PM
22nd -- Trotsky and Lunacharskii arrested

August

26th -- Second coalition government ends
27th -- General Lavr Kornilov failed coup. Kornilov arrested and imprisoned.

September

1st -- Russia declared a republic
4th -- Trotsky and others freed. Trotsky becomes head of Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies.
25th -- Third coalition government formed

October

10th -- Bolshevik Central Committee meeting approves armed uprising
11th -- Congress of Soviets of the Northern Region, until 13th
20th -- First meeting of the Military Revolutionary Committee (Revolutionary Soviet Committee) of the Petrograd Soviet
25th -- October Revolution is launched as MRC directs armed workers and soldiers to capture key buildings in Petrograd. Winter Palace attacked at 9.40pm and captured at 2am. Kerensky flees Petrograd. Opening of the 2nd All-Russian Congress of Soviets.
26th -- Second Congress of Soviets: Mensheviks and right SR delegates walk out in protest against the previous day's events. Decree on Peace and Decree on Land. Soviet government declared - the Council of People's Commissars (Bolshevik dominated with Lenin as chairman).

Bibliography

Participants' accounts

  • Reed, John. Ten Days that Shook the World (http://www.marxists.org/archive/reed/works/1919/10days/index.htm). 1919, 1st Edition, published by BONI & Liveright, Inc. for International Publishers. Transcribed and marked by David Walters for John Reed Internet Archive (http://www.marxists.org/archive/reed/works/index.htm). Penguin Books; 1st edition. June 1, 1980. ISBN 0140182934. Retrieved May 14, 2005.
  • Serge, Victor. Year One of the Russian Revolution (http://www.marxists.org/archive/serge/1930/year-one/index.htm). L'An l de la revolution russe, 1930. Year One of the Russian Revolution, Holt, Reinhart, and Winston. Translation, editor's Introduction, and notes 1972 by Peter Sedgwick. Reprinted on Victor Serge Internet Archive by permission. ISBN 0863161502. Retrieved May 14, 2005.
  • Trotsky, Leon. The History of the Russian Revolution (http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/works/1930-hrr/index.htm). Translated by Max Eastman, 1932. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 8083994. ISBN 0913460834. Transcribed for the World Wide Web by John Gowland (Australia), Alphanos Pangas (Greece) and David Walters (United States). Pathfinder Press edition. June 1, 1980. ISBN 0873488296. Retrieved May 14, 2005.

Reference

  • Figes, Orlando. A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924, : ISBN 014024364X (trade paperback) ISBN 0670859168 (hardcover)
  • Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Russian Revolution. 199 pages. Oxford University Press; 2nd Reissu edition. December 1, 2001. ISBN 0192802046.
  • Lincoln, W. Bruce. " Red Victory: A History of the Russian Civil War 1918 to 1921. ISBN 0-306-80909-5 New York, Simon and Schuster, 1989. Chapter 5

pp163-193.

External links

In Cinema

  • Arsenal aka Арсенал aka January Uprising in Kiev in 1918 (IMDB profile) (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0019649/). Written and Directed by Aleksandr Dovzhenko. Runtime: USA:70 min. Soviet Union / Ukraine. Language: Russian / Ukrainian. Black and White. Silent. 1928.
  • Konets Sankt-Peterburga aka The End of St. Petersburg (IMDB profile) (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0018066/). Directed by Vsevolod Pudovkin and Mikhail Doller (co-director). Written by Nathan Zarkhi. 80 min. Soviet Union. Black and White. Silent. 1927. Russian. Rural youth caught up in 1917 revolution.
  • Lenin v 1918 godu aka Lenin in 1918 (IMDB profile) (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0031564/). Directed by Mikhail Romm and E. Aron (co-director). Runtime: USA:130 min. 1939.
  • Oktyabr aka October aka Ten Days that Shook the World (USA) (IMDB profile) (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0018217/). Directed by Sergei M. Eisenstein and Grigori Aleksandrov. Runtimes: Sweden:104 min, USA:95 min. Country: Soviet Union. Black and White. Silent. 1927.



ca:Revoluci Russa cy:Chwyldro Rwsia da:Oktoberrevolutionen de:Oktoberrevolution el:Ρωσική Επανάσταση eo:Rusa Revolucio de 1917 fr:Rvolution russe it:Rivoluzione russa lv:1917. gada Krievijas revolūcija he:הפיכת אוקטובר nl:Russische Revolutie ja:ロシア革命 lt:Rusijos revoliucija nb:Den russiske revolusjon nn:Den russiske revolusjonen ro:Revoluţia rusă din 1917 ru:Октябрьская революция 1917 sv:Ryska revolutionen zh:十月革命

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