Peronism is an Argentine political ideology based on the ideas and programs associated with former president Juan Perón. It was also called Justicialism.

Perón was a pragmatic figure, and through the course of his long career his views would frequently change. His ideology was nevertheless marked by some constants, including:

  • Strong authoritarian central leadership, with strict control of opposition forces.
  • Freedom from foreign influences.
  • A third way approach to economics; neither communist nor capitalist, but instead incorporating some elements of both.

Perón's party, the Partido Justicialista, derived its name from the Spanish words for justice and social.

Perón's ideas were widely embraced by a variety of different groups in Argentina, all across the political spectrum. Perón's personal baggage would eventually become a burden on the ideology, his anti-clericalism did not strike a sympathetic chord in Argentine society, and prior to his overthrow many Argentines began to call for "Peronism without Perón". Nevertheless, a symptom of the success of Perón's personality cult is the difficulty Argentines have had since, in identifying themselves as 'patriotic' without being Peronist.

Today, there are several Argentine political parties identifying themselves as Peronist, including the party of the nation's current president, Néstor Kirchner.

Perón's public speeches were consistently nationalist and populist. It would also be difficult to separate Peronism from corporate nationalism, for Perón nationalized Argentina's large corporations, blurring distinctions between corporations and government. At the same time, the labor unions became corporate themselves, relinquishing the right to strike in agreements with Perón as Secretary of Welfare in the military government from 1943-45. In exchange, the state was to assume the role of negotiator between conflicting interests.

While leaving aside fascist influences, it should be noted that after Perón was overthrown in a coup in 1955 led by General Aramburu, he spent 18 years in exile, mostly in Franco's Spain. Though his feelings for Franco were mixed, Perón never disguised his admiration for Benito Mussolini's domestic policies.

Racism was notably absent from Perón's agenda. Racism is often made out to be integral to fascism. Likewise, violence, though certainly present in the early days of Perón's rule, was never taken to the extremes of many other 20th century dictators. Peronism also lacked a strong interest in matters of foreign policy other than the belief that the political and economic influences of other nations should be kept out of Argentina and could thus be said to be somewhat isolationist.

Even after his death, Peronism still left a strong impression on the working class for goals and aspects of life to fight for and hold strong to.he:פרוניזם nl:Peronisme


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