Intermediate value theorem

In calculus, the intermediate value theorem is either of two theorems of which an account is given below.
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Intermediate value theorem
Intermediatevaluetheorem.png
The intermediate value theorem states the following: Suppose that I is an interval in the real numbers R and that f : I → R is a continuous function. Then the image set f ( I ) is also an interval.
It is frequently stated in the following equivalent form: Suppose that f : [a, b] → R is continuous and that u is a real number satisfying f (a) < u < f (b) or f (a) > u > f (b). Then for some c in (a, b), f(c) = u.
This captures an intuitive property of continuous functions: if f (1) = 3 and f (2) = 5 then f must be equal to 4 somewhere between 1 and 2. It represents the idea that the graph of a continuous function can be drawn without lifting your pencil from the paper.
Proof
We shall prove the first case f (a) < u < f (b); the second is similar.
Let S = {x in [a, b] : f(x) ≤ u}. Then S is nonempty (as a is in S) and bounded above by b. Hence by the completeness property of the real numbers, the supremum c = sup S exists. We claim that f (c) = u.
Suppose first that f (c) > u. Then f (c)  u > 0, so there is a δ > 0 such that  f (x)  f (c)  < f (c)  u whenever  x  c  < δ, since f is continuous. But then f (x) > f (c)  ( f (c)  u ) = u whenever  x  c  < δ and then f (x) > u for x in ( c  δ, c + δ) and thus c  δ is an upper bound for S which is smaller than c, a contradiction.
Suppose next that f (c) < u. Again, by continuity, there is a δ > 0 such that  f (x)  f (c)  < u  f (c) whenever  x  c  < δ. Then f (x) < f (c) + ( u  f (c) ) = u for x in ( c  δ, c + δ) and there are numbers x greater than c for which f (x) < u, again a contradiction to the definition of c.
We deduce that f (c) = u as stated.
History
For u=0 above, the statement is also known as Bolzano's theorem; this theorem was first stated, together with a proof which used techniques which are now regarded as nonrigorous, by Bernard Bolzano.
Generalization
The intermediate value theorem can be seen as a consequence of the following two statements from topology:
 If X and Y are topological spaces, f : X → Y is continuous, and X is connected, then f(X) is connected.
 A subset of R is connected if and only if it is an interval.
Converse is false
Suppose f is a realvalued function defined on some interval I, and for every two elements a and b in I and for every u between f(a) and f(b) there exists a c between a and b such that f(c) = u. Does have f have to be continuous? The answer is no; the converse of the intermediate value theorem fails. As an example, take the function f(x) = sin(1/x) for x nonzero, and f(0) = 0. This function is not continuous as the limit for x → 0 does not exist; yet the function has the above intermediate value property.
Historically, this intermediate value property has been suggested as a definition for continuity of realvalued functions; this definition was not adopted.
Darboux's theorem states that all functions that result from the differentiation of some other function on some interval have the intermediate value property (even though they need not be continuous).
Intermediate value theorem of integration
The intermediate value theorem of integration is derived from the intermediate value theorem given above and states:
If <math>f<math> is a continuous function on some interval <math>[a,b]<math>, then the signed area under the function on that interval is equal to the length of the interval <math>ba<math> multiplied by some function value <math>f(c)<math> such that <math>a < c < b<math>. I.e.
 <math>\int_a^b f(x) dx = f(c)(ba)<math>
External links
 Intermediate value Theorem  Bolzano Theorem (http://www.cuttheknot.org/Generalization/ivt.shtml)fr:Théorème des valeurs intermédiaires