Hyderabad, India

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There is also Hyderabad, Pakistan, a city in Sindh province in Pakistan.

Template:Hyderabad infobox

Hyderabad (హైదరాబాద,حیدراباد), the 5th largest metropolis of India [1] (http://www.world-gazetteer.com/t/t_in.htm), is the capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh. It is known for its rich history and culture with monuments, mosques, temples, a rich and varied heritage in arts, crafts and dance. Hyderabad and Secunderabad are twin cities, separated by Hussain Sagar (also known as Tank Bund), an artificial lake constructed during the time of Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah Wali in 1562.

Contents

Origin of name

Hyderabad is also known as Bhagyanagar. The name is derived from the name of the Hindu danseuse (devadasi), who married the Muslim Prince despite opposition from the King. Her name was Bhagmathi and the city was named after her as Bhagyanagar. After she converted to Islam she took the name of Hyder Begum and the city was named after her as Hyderabad.

History

The city is more than 400 years old and is noted for its many mosques, temples, minarets, bazaars, and beautiful geography. It lies on the Deccan (Dakkan) plateau, 541 meters (1776 feet) above sea level, and sprawls over an area of 260 km² (100 mile²). A multitude of influences have shaped the character of the city. Its palaces and buildings, houses and tenements, gardens and streets have a history and an architectural individuality of their own.

The area around Hyderabad was once part of Ashoka's Empire in the 3rd century BC. Various Hindu kingdoms like the Kakatiyas ruled the area for many centuries, and the region was claimed by both Hindu and Muslim leaders until the late 14th century, when Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah consolidated power and established the fortress city of Golconda nearby.

Hyderabad was founded by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah on the Musi River five miles east of Golconda in 1591-92. Quli Qutb Shah also ordered the construction of the Char Minar, one of the most famous monuments in the city, in 1591. The Qutb Shahi dynasty founded and ruled the Kingdom of Golconda, one of the five kingdoms that emerged after the break up of the Bahmani Sultanate. All seven Qutb Shahi sultans were patrons of learning and were great builders. They contributed to the growth and development of Indo-Persian and Indo-Islamic literature and culture in Hyderabad. During the Qutb Shahi reign Golconda became one of the leading markets in the world for diamonds, pearls, steel, arms, and also printed fabric. In the 16th century, the city grew spontaneously to accommodate the surplus population of Golconda, which was the capital of the Qutb Shahi rulers.

In 1687, the Golconda sultanate was conquered by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, and Hyderabad became part of the Mughal Empire. As the empire weakened in the 18th century, provincial officials gained greater autonomy. In 1724, Asif Jah, who had already been granted the title Nizam al Mulk by the Mughal emperor, defeated a rival official to take control of Hyderabad province, and established his independence from the Mughals. His successors ruled as Nizams of Hyderabad. The rule of the seven Nizams saw the growth of Hyderabad both culturally and economically. Huge reservoirs, like the Nizam Sagar, Tungabadra, Osman Sagar, Himayat Sagar, and others were built. Survey work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also begun during this time.

When the British and the French spread their hold over the country, the Nizam won their friendship without bequeathing his power. The title "Faithful Ally of the British Government" was bestowed on Nizam VII. The British stationed a Resident at Hyderabad, but the state continued to be ruled by the Nizam. Hyderabad, under the Nizams, was the largest princely state in India, with an area larger than England and Scotland put together. The State had its own currency, mint, railways, and postal system. There was no income tax.

Soon after India gained independence, it forcefully annexed Hyderabad through Operation Polo, and became an Indian state. On November 1, 1956, the map of India was redrawn into linguistic states, and Hyderabad state was divided between Andhra Pradesh, Bombay state (present-day Maharashtra), and Mysore state (present-day Karnataka). Hyderabad and the surrounding area were added to Andhra Pradesh based on Telugu linguistic majority, and Hyderabad became the capital of the state.

Geography

Hyderabad is located in the center of Andhra Pradesh, in the region of Telangana.

Economy

In the late 1990s and the early years of the 21st century, the increasing numbers of IT and ITES companies located here - both home-grown ones as well as offshoots of American companies - have led civic boosters to call their city "Cyberabad".

Hyderabad has made heavy investments in digital infrastructure, and is well known throughout India for its technology sector. An emphasis on education, including female education, is causing productivity and business to thrive, challenging the traditional caste system.

India's fourth largest software company Satyam is headquartered here. Infosys, Microsoft, Oracle, Wipro, Kanbay, GE, Dell, Deloitte, HSBC, Juno, Intergraph, Keane, Baan Tata Consultancy Services and Google are some of the prominent companies that have established centers in the city.

Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, an emerging global pharmaceutical company listed on the NYSE, is headquartered here. Ramoji film city, Asia'a largest film production center - India's own 'Universal Studios' - is also located here.

Hyderabad is also the city of pearls and pearl ornaments, silverware, saris; 'Nirmal' and 'Kalamkari' paintings and artefacts; unique 'Bidri' handicraft items; lacquer bangles studded with stones; and silk and cotton, handloom clothing materials.

Civic Administration

The city is administered by a municipal corporation (Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (MCH)), whose titular head is the Mayor who has few executive powers. The real executive power of the corporation is vested in the Municipal Commissioner, an IAS officer appointed by the state government. The MCH is in charge of the civic needs and infrastructure of the metropolis. Hyderabad is divided into hundred municipal wards, each overseen by a corporator. The corporators of the administration are voted through a popular vote and almost all the state political parties field their candidates.

The metropolis is composed of one district in Andhra Pradesh, it comes under the jurisprudence of the District Collector. The collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central government. They also oversee the national elections held in the city.

Like other metropolises in India, the Hyderabad Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, an IPS officer. The Hyderabad Police comes under the state Home Ministry. Hyderabad is divided into five police zones each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Hyderabad Police. Hyderabad is the seat of the Andhra Pradesh High Court, which has under its jurisdiction the state of Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad also has two lower courts, the Small Causes Court, for civil matters, and the Sessions Court for criminal cases.

Hyderabad contributes two seats to the Lok Sabha (India's Lower House of Parliament) and thirteen seats to the Andhra Pradesh state assembly.

Transport

Missing image
MMTS_NecklaceRoadStation6.jpg
The MMTS Necklace Road Station
The Hyderabad Airport at Begumpet is well linked to other cities in India and to international destinations including the Middle East, Southeast Asia, especially Singapore and Malaysia, and most recently to Newark and Chicago, United States.

A new International Airport is being constructed at Shamshabad in the outskirts of the city, and once complete, it will take over from the exisitng airport.

Hyderabad has a transportation system known as the Multi Mode Transport System (MMTS), which incorporates light rail. The MMTS connects various parts of the city.

Hyderabad is also currently scheduled to get a Monorail system to help ease urban congestion.

Demographics

The city population is estimated at over 3.69 million (2001) while the population of the greater metropolitan area is estimated at over 6.39 million. Hyderabad has a large Muslim population. Languages spoken include Urdu, Telugu, and Hindi, with a significant amount of English used in business. People from many other parts of India have adopted Hyderabad as their hometown.

Culture

People in Hyderabad practice Islam, Hinduism, and Christianity. They speak Urdu, Telugu, Tamil, Hindi, and English. Muslims tend to speak Urdu, while Hindus and Christians speak Telugu, although members of both groups speak the other; all Hyderabadis may speak Hindi and English, but not necessarily as a primary language.

Among Indian Muslims, those in Hyderabadi are relatively conservative. Women often wear burqas in public, and other religious traditions are observed closely. Like other South Indians, Hyderabadis sometimes consider themselves to lead a more relaxed life than Northerners.

Cuisine

Hyderabadi cuisine is very distinct from the rest of Indian cuisine. It is a blend of heavy Moghul influences and elements of the cuisine of Telangana, the surrounding region of Andhra Pradesh. Some famous dishes include Biryani, Baghare Baigan, Khubani ka Meetha and Double Ka Meetha, as well as haleem, a beef dish reminiscent of oatmeal that is traditionally eaten to break the Ramadan fast. As many Muslim Hyderabadis go to the Middle East to work, in particular to Dubai, haleem is now popular in those regions as well. Local chains that serve haleem and other Hyderabadi specialties is Yousufain Pista House and Hyderabad House; other renowned restaurants include G. Pulla Reddy Pure Ghee Sweets, Gokul Chaat, near Sultan Bazaar, famous for its North Indian chaat, liberally doused with spices and yoghurt.

Education

Hyderabad is an important seat of learning in southern India. It has eight universities and professional colleges. The famous Osmania University, the University of Hyderabad (also called Hyderabad Central University), as well as the Central Institute of English & Foreign Languages (CIEFL) are just a few academic institutions that give Hyderabad a prominent place in education and technology. In addition, research centres such as the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, International Institute of Information Technology (IIIT Hyderabad), the Indian School of Business (ISB), National Academy of Legal Studies and Research (NALSAR), the Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI) Engineering Staff College of India (ESCI), Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) and the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) are also housed here. Jami'ah Nizamiyyah, the largest Islamic University in Southern India is also located here.

Media

Sports

Sports besides cricket are also popular in Hyderabad. In the inaugural Premiere Hockey League in 2005, Hyderabad Sultans won the championships. Hyderabad also recently got a new cricket stadium, Visakha.

Present Problems

During the summer months of April, May and June water crisis exists as the major water bodies get dried up. Projects are in progress to boost the water supply to the city from Krishna and Godavari Rivers. The water from River Krishna has reached the city in the summer of 2004, and the water problem is temporarily delayed until demand increases further.

Hyderabad, like much of the rest of the Deccan Plateau, is filled with many large, reddish boulders. Many of these boulders are being blasted for construction use, which has caused consternation among conservationists. A group called the Save the Rocks Society has been formed to oppose the quarrying by lobbying and by leading walks among the rocks.

Like other places in India, communal tensions between Hindus and Muslims sometimes flare up. Since the proportions of Hindus and Muslims are relatively close, potential for violence is somewhat high, although there have been few major incidents of violence recently.

Attractions

  • Charminar- the major landmark in Hyderabad with four graceful minarets.
  • Laad Bazaar- directly to the west of Charminar, and known for its bangles.
  • Makkah Masjid - a stone-built mosque, immediately southwest of Charminar.
  • Golconda Fort - located on the outskirts of the city, Golconda Fort is one of the most magnificient fortress complexes in India.
  • Hussain Sagar - man-built lake that separates the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad.
  • Public Gardens of Hyderabad- one of the best laid-out gardens in the country with buildings of the State Legislature, Jubilee Hall, etc.
  • Salar Jung Museum- houses the largest one-man collection of antiques in the world.
  • Birla Planetarium - located in the heart of the city on the panoramic hillock of Nawbat Pahad, the Birla Planetarium is a tribute to the advances made in science and technology.
  • Ramoji Film City - as the name suggests a Film City on the Hyderabad-Vijayawada highway. Open to visitors and houses the various sets that were used in films.
  • NTR Gardens - Well laid out garden on the banks of Hussain Sagar
  • Snow World - An amusement park which enables citizens of this tropical city to experience very low temparatures and snow - even if it is artificial

External Links

Template:Metropolitan Cities of India Template:India state and UT capitalsca:Hyderabad (ndia) de:Hyderabad (Indien) fi:Hyderabad (Intia nl:Hyderabad (India) hi:हैदराबाद zh:海得拉巴

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