Boundary (topology)

From Academic Kids

For a different notion of boundary related to manifolds, see that article.

In topology, the boundary of a subset S of a topological space X is the set's closure minus its interior. An element of the boundary of S is called a boundary point of S. Notations used for boundary of a set S include: bd(S), fr(S) or <math>\partial S<math>.

There are two other common (and equivalent) approaches to defining the boundary of S and the boundary points of S.

  1. Define the boundary of S to be the intersection of the closure of S with the closure of its complement.
  2. Define p in X to be a boundary point of S if every neighborhood of p contains at least one point of S and at least one point not in S. Then define the boundary of S to be the set of all boundary points of S.

Properties

  • The boundary of a set is closed.
  • p is a boundary point of a set iff every neighborhood of p contains at least one point in the set and at least one point not in the set.
  • The boundary of a set equals the intersection of that set's closure with the closure of its complement.
  • A set is closed iff the boundary of the set is in the set, and open iff it is disjoint from its boundary.
  • The boundary of a set equals the boundary of its complement.
  • The closure of a set equals the union of the set with its boundary.
  • The boundary of a set is empty iff the set is both closed and open (i.e. a clopen set).

Examples

  • If <math>X=[0,5)<math>, then <math>\partial X = \{0,5\}.<math>
  • <math>\partial \overline{B}(\mathbf{a}, r) = \overline{B}(\mathbf{a}, r) - B(\mathbf{a}, r)<math>
  • <math>\partial D^n \simeq S^{n-1}<math>
  • <math>\partial \emptyset = \emptyset<math>
  • In R3, if Ω=x2+y2 ≤ 1, ∂Ω = Ω, but in R2, ∂Ω = {(x, y) | x2+y2 = 1}. So, the boundary of a set can depend on what set it lies in.ko:경계 (위상수학)

pl:Brzeg (topologia) zh:边界

Navigation

Academic Kids Menu

  • Art and Cultures
    • Art (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Art)
    • Architecture (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Architecture)
    • Cultures (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Cultures)
    • Music (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Music)
    • Musical Instruments (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/List_of_musical_instruments)
  • Biographies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Biographies)
  • Clipart (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Clipart)
  • Geography (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Geography)
    • Countries of the World (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Countries)
    • Maps (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Maps)
    • Flags (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Flags)
    • Continents (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Continents)
  • History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History)
    • Ancient Civilizations (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Ancient_Civilizations)
    • Industrial Revolution (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Industrial_Revolution)
    • Middle Ages (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Middle_Ages)
    • Prehistory (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Prehistory)
    • Renaissance (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Renaissance)
    • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
    • United States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/United_States)
    • Wars (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Wars)
    • World History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History_of_the_world)
  • Human Body (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Human_Body)
  • Mathematics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Mathematics)
  • Reference (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Reference)
  • Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Science)
    • Animals (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Animals)
    • Aviation (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Aviation)
    • Dinosaurs (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Dinosaurs)
    • Earth (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Earth)
    • Inventions (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Inventions)
    • Physical Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Physical_Science)
    • Plants (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Plants)
    • Scientists (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Scientists)
  • Social Studies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Social_Studies)
    • Anthropology (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Anthropology)
    • Economics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Economics)
    • Government (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Government)
    • Religion (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Religion)
    • Holidays (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Holidays)
  • Space and Astronomy
    • Solar System (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Solar_System)
    • Planets (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Planets)
  • Sports (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Sports)
  • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
  • Weather (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Weather)
  • US States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/US_States)

Information

  • Home Page (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php)
  • Contact Us (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Contactus)

  • Clip Art (http://classroomclipart.com)
Toolbox
Personal tools