# Boundary (topology)

For a different notion of boundary related to manifolds, see that article.

In topology, the boundary of a subset S of a topological space X is the set's closure minus its interior. An element of the boundary of S is called a boundary point of S. Notations used for boundary of a set S include: bd(S), fr(S) or [itex]\partial S[itex].

There are two other common (and equivalent) approaches to defining the boundary of S and the boundary points of S.

1. Define the boundary of S to be the intersection of the closure of S with the closure of its complement.
2. Define p in X to be a boundary point of S if every neighborhood of p contains at least one point of S and at least one point not in S. Then define the boundary of S to be the set of all boundary points of S.

## Properties

• The boundary of a set is closed.
• p is a boundary point of a set iff every neighborhood of p contains at least one point in the set and at least one point not in the set.
• The boundary of a set equals the intersection of that set's closure with the closure of its complement.
• A set is closed iff the boundary of the set is in the set, and open iff it is disjoint from its boundary.
• The boundary of a set equals the boundary of its complement.
• The closure of a set equals the union of the set with its boundary.
• The boundary of a set is empty iff the set is both closed and open (i.e. a clopen set).

## Examples

• If [itex]X=[0,5)[itex], then [itex]\partial X = \{0,5\}.[itex]
• [itex]\partial \overline{B}(\mathbf{a}, r) = \overline{B}(\mathbf{a}, r) - B(\mathbf{a}, r)[itex]
• [itex]\partial D^n \simeq S^{n-1}[itex]
• [itex]\partial \emptyset = \emptyset[itex]
• In R3, if Ω=x2+y2 ≤ 1, ∂Ω = Ω, but in R2, ∂Ω = {(x, y) | x2+y2 = 1}. So, the boundary of a set can depend on what set it lies in.ko:경계 (위상수학)

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