# Axonometric projection

Axonometric projection ("to measure along axes") is a technique used in orthographic pictorials.

Within orthographic projection, there is an ancillary category known as pictorials. Pictorials show an image of an object as viewed from a skew direction in order to reveal all three directions (axes) of space in one picture. Orthographic pictorial, rote, instrument drawings are often used to approximate Graphical Perspective projections, but there is attendant distortion in the approximation. Because pictorial projections innately have this distortion, in the rote, instrument drawing of Pictorials, great liberties may then be taken for economy of effort and best effect.

The three types of axonometric projections are isometric projection, dimetric projection, and trimetric projection. Typically in axonometric drawing, one axis of space is shown as the vertical.

In isometric projections the direction of viewing is such that the three axes of space appear equally foreshortened, of which the displayed angles among them and also the scale of foreshortening are universally known. However in creating a final, isometric instrument drawing, in most cases a full-size scale, i.e., without using a foreshortening factor, is employed to good effect because the resultant distortion is difficult to perceive.

In dimetric projections, the directions of viewing are such that two of the three axes of space appear equally foreshortened, of which the attendant scale and angles of presentation are determined according to the angle of viewing; the scale of the third direction (vertical) is determined separately. Approximations are common in Dimetric drawings.

In trimetric projections, the direction of viewing is such that all of the three axes of space appear unequally foreshortened. The scale along each of the three axes and the angles among them are determined separately as dictated by the angle of viewing. Approximations in Trimetric drawings are common.

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