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Achalasia

From Academic Kids

Achalasia or acalasia is a failure of a ring of muscle (as a sphincter) to relax (completely). It refers most commonly to esophageal achalasia, which is a neuromuscular disorder of the esophagus characterized by the reduced ability to move food down the esophagus (peristalsis). In addition, the inability of the cardia ( also called lower esophageal sphincter)- to relax in response to swallowing (there is increased LES pressure- spasms).

Synonyms are achalasia cardiae, cardiospasm, dyssynergia esophagus, esophageal aperistalsis. Its ICD code is 530.0.

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Diagnosis

Due to the similarity of symptoms, achalasia can be misdiagnosed as other disorders, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and Chagas disease

  • X-ray with a barium swallow or esophagography . Shows narrowing at the level of the gastroesophageal junction ("bird beak"), and various degrees of megaesophagus (esophageal dilation).
  • Endoscopy, which provides a view from within the esophagus.
  • Manometry, the key test for establishing the diagnosis. Measures the pressure induced in different parts of the esophagus and stomach during the act of swallowing.
  • CT scan, which provides further visual evidence.

Complications

  1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease-GERD or heartburn.
  2. Barrett's esophagus or Barrett's mucosa: in 10% of patients.
  3. There are two kinds of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. There are predisposing conditions that, if present for a long time, may lead to esophageal adenocarcinoma, like achalasia (in up to 5% of cases, Barrett's esophagus leads to esophageal adenocarcinoma).

Treatment and new expectations

See also

External links


Health science - Medicine - Gastroenterology
Diseases of the esophagus - stomach
Halitosis - Nausea - Vomiting - GERD - Achalasia - Esophageal cancer - Esophageal varices - Peptic ulcer - Abdominal pain - Stomach cancer - Functional dyspepsia
Diseases of the liver - pancreas - gallbladder - biliary tree
Hepatitis - Cirrhosis - NASH - PBC - PSC - Budd-Chiari syndrome - Hepatocellular carcinoma - Pancreatitis - Pancreatic cancer - Gallstones - Cholecystitis
Diseases of the small intestine
Peptic ulcer - Intussusception - Malabsorption (e.g. celiac disease, lactose intolerance, fructose malabsorption, Whipple's disease) - Lymphoma
Diseases of the colon
Diarrhea - Appendicitis - Diverticulitis - Diverticulosis - IBD (Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis) - Irritable bowel syndrome - Constipation - Colorectal cancer - Hirschsprung's disease - Pseudomembranous colitis
de:Achalasie

es:Achalasia ms:Akalasia pt:Acalasia tl:Achalasia

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