Advertisement

Volga Bulgaria

From Academic Kids

[edit  (http://kids.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php?title=Template:History_of_Russia&action=edit)]
History of Russia
Early East Slavs
Khazars
Kievan Rus'
Volga Bulgaria
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Muscovy
Khanate of Kazan
Khanate of Astrakhan
Siberia Khanate
Crimean Khanate
Imperial Russia
Revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1917
Civil War
Soviet Union
Russian Federation

Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. Today, Republics of Tatarstan and Chuvashia are considered to be descendants of Bulgaria in terms of territory and ethnicity.

Contents

Origin

Information on Volga Bulgaria is rather sparse. As no authentic Bulgarian records have survived, we should take most of the information from contemporary Arabic, Persian, or Russian sources.

It is thought that the territory of Volga Bulgaria was originally settled by the Finno-Ugric peoples. The Turkic Bulgars moved into the area in about 660, commanded by Kotrag Khan, Kubrat's son. Some Bulgarian tribes, however, continued westward and after many adventures settled along the Danube River, in what is now known as Bulgaria proper.

Most scholars agree that the Volga Bulgarians were subject to the great Khazarian Empire. Sometime in the late 9th century unification processes started, and the capital was established at Bolğar (also spelled Bulgar) city, located 160 km south from modern Kazan. Most scholars doubt, however, that the state could assert independance from the Khazars until the latter were annihilated by Svyatoslav of Rus in 965.
Missing image
Manara.jpg


In order to promote unity among warring tribes and to obtain a powerful ally in his struggle with the Khazars, Almas Khan of Bulgaria wrote a letter to the Khalif asking him for learned men and priests who could read Quran and build mosques. On May 11, 922 the khan welcomed the Baghdad missionary Ahmad ibn Fadlan, and 4 days later a tribal assembly proclaimed Islam the official religion of their state.

Heyday

A large part of Bulgarian population was Turkic. Modern Chuvashes and Kazan Tatars descend from the Volga Bulgars, although linguistic evidence suggests that the Chuvashes represent an earlier Turkic ethnos, which may be connected to the Huns. Another part comprised Finnic and Magyaric tribes, from which Bisermns probably descend.

Commanding the Volga River in its middle course, the state controlled much of trade between Europe and Asia prior to the Crusades (which made other trade routes practicable). The capital, Bulgar, was a thriving city, rivalling in size and wealth the greatest centres of Islamic world. Other major cities included Bilr, Suar (Suwar), Qaşan (Kashan) and Cktaw (Juketaw). Modern cities Kazan and Yelabuga were founded as Bulgaria's border fortresses.
Missing image
Bulgarmosque.jpg
A mosque in Bulgar.

It is Russian principalities to the west that posed the only tangible military threat. In the 11th century, the country was devastated by several Russian raids. Then, at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, the rulers of Vladimir (notably Andrew the Pious and Vsevolod III), anxious to defend their eastern border, systematically pillaged Bulgarian cities. Under Slavic pressure from the west, the Bulgarians had to move their capital from Bulgar to Bilr.

Decline

Main article: Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria

In 1223, an advance guard of Genghis Khan's army entered Bulgaria but was fought back. In 1236, the Mongols returned but it took them 5 years to subjugate the whole country. Thenceforth Volga Bulgaria became a part of the Ulus Jochi, later known as the Golden Horde. It was divided into several principalities; later each of them became a vassal of the Golden Horde and received some autonomy. By the 1430s, the Khanate of Kazan was established as the most important of these principalities.


Related articles

bg:Волжска България de:Wolgabulgaren ru:Волжская Булгария tt:Bolğarlar

Navigation

Academic Kids Menu

  • Art and Cultures
    • Art (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Art)
    • Architecture (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Architecture)
    • Cultures (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Cultures)
    • Music (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Music)
    • Musical Instruments (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/List_of_musical_instruments)
  • Biographies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Biographies)
  • Clipart (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Clipart)
  • Geography (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Geography)
    • Countries of the World (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Countries)
    • Maps (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Maps)
    • Flags (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Flags)
    • Continents (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Continents)
  • History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History)
    • Ancient Civilizations (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Ancient_Civilizations)
    • Industrial Revolution (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Industrial_Revolution)
    • Middle Ages (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Middle_Ages)
    • Prehistory (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Prehistory)
    • Renaissance (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Renaissance)
    • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
    • United States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/United_States)
    • Wars (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Wars)
    • World History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History_of_the_world)
  • Human Body (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Human_Body)
  • Mathematics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Mathematics)
  • Reference (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Reference)
  • Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Science)
    • Animals (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Animals)
    • Aviation (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Aviation)
    • Dinosaurs (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Dinosaurs)
    • Earth (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Earth)
    • Inventions (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Inventions)
    • Physical Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Physical_Science)
    • Plants (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Plants)
    • Scientists (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Scientists)
  • Social Studies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Social_Studies)
    • Anthropology (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Anthropology)
    • Economics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Economics)
    • Government (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Government)
    • Religion (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Religion)
    • Holidays (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Holidays)
  • Space and Astronomy
    • Solar System (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Solar_System)
    • Planets (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Planets)
  • Sports (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Sports)
  • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
  • Weather (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Weather)
  • US States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/US_States)

Information

  • Home Page (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php)
  • Contact Us (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Contactus)

  • Clip Art (http://classroomclipart.com)
Toolbox
Personal tools