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Voiced velar plosive

From Academic Kids

Template:Infobox IPA The voiced velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is g.

Of the six plosives that would be expected from the most common pattern world-wide, that is, three places of articulation plus voicing ([p b, t d, k g]), [p] and [g] are the most frequently missing, being absent in about 10% of languages that otherwise have this pattern. The former is an areal feature (see [[Voiceless bilabial plosive|]]). Missing , on the other hand, is widely scattered around the world. (A few languages, such as Ket, are missing both.) It seems that [g] is somewhat more difficult to articulate than the other basic plosives. Ian Maddieson speculates that this may be due to a physical difficulty in voicing velars: voicing requires that air flow into to mouth cavity, and the relatively small space allowed by velar consonants means that it will fill up with air quickly, making voicing difficult to maintain. This could have two effects: [g] and [k] become confused, and the distinction is lost, or [g] is never developed in the first place when a language starts making voicing distinctions. (Note that with uvulars the imbalance is even more extreme: is much rarer than .)

Contents

Features

Features of the voiced velar plosive:

Varieties of [g]

IPA Description
g plain g
gʰ or g̈ aspirated or breathy voice g
palatalized g
labialized g
unreleased g
voiceless g

In English

In English, the sound /g/ is denoted by the letter 'g' as in gum or bag. However, the letter 'g' does not always denote the sound /g/. When followed by 'i' or 'e' or preceded by 'd' it sometimes denotes the affricate /dʒ/, as in gin and judgement. When preceded by 'n' and occurring at the end of a morpheme, it often becomes the digraph 'ng', which denotes the velar nasal, as in singer and rung, but not finger.

In other languages

The [g] sound is a common sound cross-linguistically. Many languages have at least a plain [g], and some distinguish more than variety. Many Indian languages, such as Hindi, have a two-way contrast between aspirated (breathy voice) and plain [g].

See also


Sounds of the world's languages
International Phonetic Alphabet
Consonants | Vowels
Places of articulation Manners of articulation

Bilabial | Labiodental | Labial-velar | Dental | Alveolar | Postalveolar | Alveolo-palatal | Retroflex | Palatal | Velar | Uvular | Pharyngeal | Epiglottal | Glottal

Nasals | Plosives | Fricatives | Affricates | Laterals | Approximants | Flaps/Taps | Trills | Ejectives | Implosives | Clicks

de:Stimmhafter velarer Plosiv

pt:Oclusiva velar sonora

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