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Vegetable oil

From Academic Kids

Vegetable oil or vegoil is fat extracted from plant sources. Although in principle other parts of plants may yield oil, in practice seeds form the almost exclusive source. Vegetable oils are used as cooking oils and for industrial uses. Some types, such as rapeseed oil, cottonseed oil, or castor oil, are not fit for human consumption without further processing.

Like all fats, vegetable oils are esters of glycerin and a varying blend of fatty acids, and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.

Contents

Sources

Common sources of vegetable oil include:

Oilseeds:

Other vegetable oils:

According to the USDA, the total world consumption of major vegetable oils in 2000 was:

Soybeans 26.0 million tonnes (MMT)
Palm23.3 MMT
Rapeseed13.1 MMT
Sunflowerseed8.6 MMT
Peanut4.2 MMT
Cottonseed3.6 MMT
Palm Kernel2.7 MMT
Olive2.5 MMT

Note that these figures include industrial and animal feed use. Palm oil, which is solid at room temperature, is used mainly to produce soaps and cosmetics. The majority of European rapeseed oil production is used to produce biodiesel, or used directly as fuel in diesel cars which are modified to handle the higher viscosity.

Extraction

  • One can use the "modern" way of processing oil by chemical extraction, using solvent extracts, which produces higher yields and is quicker and less expensive. The most common solvent is petroleum-derived hexane, more commonly known as petroleum ether.
  • Another way is the "physical extraction", that does not use solvent extracts. It is made the "old" way by several different types of mechanical extraction. This method is frequently used to produce cooking oil, since it is preferred by most customers (at least in Europe). Expeller-pressed extraction is one type. There are two other types that are both oil presses. The screw press and the ram press.

See also

External links

de:Pflanzenöl es:Aceite vegetal it:Olio vegetale lt:Augalinis aliejus nl:Plantaardige olie pl:Olej roślinny simple:Vegetable oil sv:Matolja

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