Udmurtia

From Academic Kids

The Udmurt Republic (Template:Lang-ru; Udmurt: Удмурт Элькун) or Udmurtia (Удму́ртия) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of the Republic's name is Udmurtskaya Respublika or Udmurtiya. Template:Federal subject of Russia

Contents

Geography

Udmurtia is located in the eastern portion of the Eastern European Plain, between the Kama and Vyatka Rivers.

Time zone

Udmurtia is located in the Samara Time Zone (SAMT/SAMST). UTC offset is +0400 (SAMT)/+0500 (SAMST).

Rivers

Major rivers include:

Lakes

While there are no large lakes in the Republic, Votkinskoye Reservoir is partially located on its territory.

Natural Resources

Udmurtia's natural resources include oil, peat, mineral waters, and more. Oil reserves are estimated to be 820 million tons (as of 2002). Approximately 7–8 million tons are extracted annually. Most of the oil is exported.

Forests cover over 40% of the Republic's territory. Most of the forests are coniferous.

Climate

Udmurtia has moderate continental climate, with warm summers and cold winters with a lot of snow.

  • Average January temperature: −14.5°C
  • Average July temperature: +18.3°C
  • Average annual precipitation: 400–600 mm

Administrative division

Main article: Administrative division of Udmurtia

Demographics

Over 100 different nationalities inhabit the Republic, including Russians (60.1%), native Udmurts (29.3%), and Tatars (7.0%). Over two thirds of the world population of Udmurts live in Udmurtia.

  • Population: 1,570,316 (2002)
    • Urban: 1,094,338 (69.7%)
    • Rural: 475,978 (30.3%)
    • Male: 725,075 (46.2%)
    • Female: 843,241 (53.7%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,160
  • Average age: 35.8 years
    • Urban: 35.6 years
    • Rural: 36.1 years
    • Male: 32.8 years
    • Female: 38.4 years
  • Number of households: 552,862 (with 1,548,762 people)
    • Urban: 395,200 (with 1,084,281 people)
    • Rural: 157,662 (with 464,481 people)

History

Before November 4, 1920, when Votsk Autonomous Oblast was formed, the territory of modern day Udmurtia was divided between Kazan and Vyatka Governorships. On January 1, 1932, Votsk Autonomous Oblast was renamed Udmurt Autonomous Oblast, which was then reorganized into the Udmurt ASSR on December 28, 1934. The Udmurt Republic in its present form exists since September 20, 1990.

Politics

The head of government in Udmurtia is the President, who is elected for a five-year term. As of 2005, the president is Alexander Alexandrovich Volkov, who assumed his post on November 3, 2000. Prior to the elections, Volkov was the Chairman of the Republic's Council—the highest post at that time.

The Republic's parliament is the State Council, popularly elected every five years. The State Council has 100 deputies.

The Republic's constitution was adopted on December 7, 1994.

Economy

Udmurtia is an industrialized Republic. The most developed industries include machine building, chemical, and oil and gas industries.

Culture

In Udmurtia, there are eight professional theaters, the Philharmonic Society, and more than ten state and numerous public museums which tell about history and culture of Udmurtia and its people, like the Museum of history and culture in Sarapul, or the Tchaikovsky Museum in Votkinsk. One of the oldest arms museums is located in Izhevsk.

See also: Music of Udmurtia

Education

The most important facilities of higher education include the Udmurt State University, Izhevsk State Technical University, and Izhevsk State Medical Academy, all located in the capital Izhevsk.

Religion

The majority of the Republic's population is atheist or Russian Orthodox. Shamanism is also practiced.

External links

Template:Russian federal subjectsde:Udmurtien eo:Udmurtio et:Udmurdi Vabariik nl:Oedmoerti ru:Удмуртия fi:Udmurtia sv:Udmurtien uk:Удмуртія

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