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Tupolev Tu-104

From Academic Kids

The Tupolev Tu-104 (NATO reporting name: Camel) was a twin-engined medium-range turbojet-powered Soviet airliner. After the de Havilland Comet, it was the second jet airliner to fly. It was the first to enter regular service. Known in the west by is NATO moniker, its arrival in London during a 1956 state visit shocked Western observers.

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Tu104.jpg
Tu-104, one of the earliest jetliners

At the beginning of the 1950s, the Soviet Union's Aeroflot airline desperately needed a modern airliner with better capacity and performance than any Soviet plane then in operation. The design request was filled by the Tupolev OKB, which based their new airliner on its Tupolev Tu-16 strategic bomber. The wings, engines, and tail surfaces of the Tu-16 were retained in the airliner, but the new design adopted a wider, pressurised fuselage to accommodate 50 passengers.

By the time production ceased in 1960, about 200 had been built. Aeroflot did not disband the Tu-104 from civil service until 1981. CSA Czech Airlines, the Czech national airline, bought a small number of Tu-104As configured for 81 passengers.

Following its removal from civil service, several disbanded aircraft were transferred to the Soviet military, which used them as staff transports and to train cosmonauts in zero gravity.

Variants

  • Tu-104 - initial version seating 50 passengers.
  • Tu-104A - Continuing improvements in the Mikulin engines permitted significant growth in the Tu-104 resulting in a 70-seater variant. The Tu-104A became the definitive production variant.
    • Tu-104D - Tu-104A airframes rebuilt to accommodate 85 passengers
    • Tu-104V - Tu-104A airframes rebuilt to accommodate 100 passengers
  • Tu-104B - Further improvements were attained with the stretched Tu-104B fitted with new engines, the Mikulin AM-3M-500 turbojets, and able to accommodate 100 passengers.

Specifications (Tu-104B)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 7
  • Capacity: 50-100
  • Length: 40.05 m (131 ft 5 in)
  • Wingspan: 34.54 m (113 ft 4 in)
  • Height: 11.90 m (39 ft 0 in)
  • Wing area: 184 m² (1,975 ft²)
  • Empty: 41,600 kg (91,710 lb)
  • Loaded: kg ( lb)
  • Maximum takeoff: 76,000 kg (167,550 lb)
  • Powerplant:Mikulin AM-3M-500 turbojets; 95.1 kN (21,385 lbf) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 950 km/h (512 knots)
  • Range: 2,650 km (1,430 nmiles)
  • Service ceiling: 11,500 m (37,730 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 600 m/min (1,968 ft/min)
  • Wing loading: kg/m² ( lb/ft²)
  • Thrust-to-weight:

References and external links

Related content

Related development: Tu-16 - Tu-107 - Tu-110 - Tu-124

Comparable aircraft: de Havilland Comet

Designation sequence: Tu-99 - Tu-102 - Tu-103 - Tu-104 - Tu-105 - Tu-106 - Tu-107


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