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Treaty of Trianon

From Academic Kids

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Trianon1.jpg
The Grand Trianon at Versailles, site of the signing

The Treaty of Trianon was an agreement that regulated the situation of the new Hungarian state that replaced the Kingdom of Hungary, part of the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy, after World War I. It was signed on June 4, 1920, at the Grand Trianon Palace at Versailles, France.

The main parties to the Treaty were the winning powers, their allied countries, and the losing side. The winning powers included the United States, Britain, France and Italy; their allies were Romania, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia; and the losing side was the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy, represented by Hungary.

Contents

Frontiers of Hungary

Difference between borders of Hungary before 1918 and after the Treaty of Trianon in 1920
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Difference between borders of Hungary before 1918 and after the Treaty of Trianon in 1920

Hungary became an independent state in 1918, with temporary borders defined in November–December 1918. Compared with the former Kingdom of Hungary (part of Austria-Hungary), the borders of independent Hungary didnt include:

The final borders of Hungary were defined by the Treaty of Trianon in 1920. Compared with the borders set eighteen months previously, the Trianon borders of Hungary didn't include:

By the Treaty of Trianon, the cities of Pcs, Mohcs, Baja and Szigetvr, which were on the Yugoslav side of the border after November 1918, were restored to Hungary.

Compared with the former Kingdom of Hungary, the population of post-Trianon Hungary was reduced from 19 million to 7 million and its land area reduced by two-thirds.

After 1918, Hungary did not have access to the sea, which the former Kingdom had had through Croatia for over 800 years.

With the help of Nazi Germany and Adolf Hitler, Hungary expanded its borders towards neighbouring countries at the outset of World War II, under the Munich Agreement (1938), the two Vienna Awards (1938 and 1940), following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia (occupation of northern Carpathian Ruthenia and eastern Slovakia) and following German aggression against Yugoslavia. This territorial expansion was short-lived, since the post-war boundaries agreed on at the Treaty of Paris in 1947 were nearly identical with those of 1920.

Consequences of the treaty

Demographic consequences

Distribution of nationalities within Austria-Hungary, according to the 1910 census
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Distribution of nationalities within Austria-Hungary, according to the 1910 census

According to the census of 1910, the largest ethnic group in the Kingdom of Hungary was the Magyars (usually called "Hungarians" in English), who were approximately 48% of the entire population. Some demographers, however, believe that the 1910 census overstated the percentage of Magyars, arguing that there were different results in previous censuses of the Kingdom and subsequent censuses in the new states. The provinces Hungary lost in the treaty had a majority population of non-Magyars, but also a significant Magyar minority.

The number of Hungarians in the provinces based on census data of 1910:

  • In Slovakia: 885,000 - 30%
  • In Transylvania (now in Romania): 1,662,000 - 32%
  • In Vojvodina (now in Serbia and Montenegro): 420,000 - 28%
  • In Transcarpathia (now in Ukraine): 183,000 - 30%
  • In Croatia: 121,000 - 3.5%
  • In Slovenia: 20,800 - 1.6%
  • In Burgenland (now in Austria): 26,200 - 9%

The Hungarian population in all those regions decreased in percentage after that, although Magyars can still be found in these countries today.

On the other hand, a considerable number of other nationalities remained within the frontiers of the new Hungary, e.g. some 450,000 Slovaks (399,170 according to Hungarian sources, 450,000–550,000 according to Czechoslovak sources), some 800,000–900,000 Germans and some 82,000 Serbs and Croats (for lack of other information, the last figure is the official figure of 1930). The percentage of all non-Magyar nationalities very quickly decreased nearly to zero in the new Hungary (there are e.g. only some 17,000 Slovaks in Hungary today, which of 2,000 live in a small village called Pilisszentkereszt).

Other consequences

Economically, 61.4% of the arable land, 88% of the timber, 62.2% of the railroads, 64.5% of the hard surface roads, 83.1% of the pig iron output, 55.7% of the industrial plants and 67% of the credit and banking institutions of the former Kingdom of Hungary became part of other countries. Romania and Yugoslavia had to assume part of the financial obligations of Hungary on account of the territory placed under their sovereignty.

The military conditions were similar to those imposed to Germany by the Treaty of Versailles; the Hungarian army was to be restricted to 35,000 men and there was to be no conscription. Further provisions stated that in Hungary, no railway would be built with more than one track.

Hungary also renounced all privileges in territory outside Europe that belonged to the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy.

Articles 54–60 of the Treaty required Hungary to observe various rights of national minorities within its borders. Hungary has been accused of violating these provisions.

See also

External links

es:Tratado de Trianon fr:Trait du Trianon ja:トリアノン条約 pl:Traktat w Trianon

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