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Trail of Tears

From Academic Kids

The Trail of Tears refers to the forced removal of the Cherokee American Indian tribe by the U.S. federal government, which resulted in the deaths of about 4,000 Cherokee Indians. In the Cherokee language, the event is called Nunna daul Tsuny — "the trail where they cried."

The Cherokees were not the only Native Americans forcibly removed to the American West, and so the phrase "Trail of Tears" is sometimes used to refer to similar events endured by other Indian peoples, especially among the "Five Civilized Tribes." See Indian Removal for an overview of the era and details about the other "trails."

Contents

Georgia and the Cherokee Nation

The rapidly expanding population of the United States early in the nineteenth century created tensions with American Indian tribes located within the borders of the various states. While state governments did not want independent Indian enclaves within state boundaries, Indian tribes did not want to relocate or to give up their distinct identities.

With the Compact of 1802, the state of Georgia relinquished to the national government its western land claims (which became the states of Alabama and Mississippi). In exchange, Georgia expected that the national government would work to remove the Indian tribes within Georgia, thus giving Georgia control of all land within its borders.

However, the Cherokees, whose ancestral tribal lands overlapped the boundaries of Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Alabama, declined to move. They established a capital in 1825 at New Echota (near present-day Calhoun, Georgia). Furthermore, led by principal Chief John Ross and Major Ridge, the speaker of the Cherokee National Council, the Cherokees adopted a written constitution on 26 July 1827, declaring the Cherokee Nation to be a sovereign and independent nation.

Gold rush and court cases

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Chief John Ross

These tensions between Georgia and the Cherokee Nation were brought to a crisis by the discovery of gold near Dahlonega, Georgia in 1829, resulting in the first gold rush in U.S. history. Hopeful gold speculators began trespassing on Cherokee lands, and pressure began to mount on the Georgia government to fulfill the promises of the Compact of 1802.

When Georgia moved to extend state laws over Cherokee tribal lands in 1830, the matter went to the U.S. Supreme Court. In Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831), the Marshall court ruled that the Cherokees were not a sovereign and independent nation, and therefore refused to hear the case. However, in Worcester v. State of Georgia (1832), the Court ruled that Georgia could not impose laws in Cherokee territory, since only the national government – not state governments — had authority in Indian affairs.

President Andrew Jackson has often been quoted as defying the Supreme Court with the words: "John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it!" Jackson never actually said this, but he was fully committed to the policy of Indian removal. Jackson had no desire to use the power of the national government to protect the Cherokees from Georgia, since he was already entangled with states' rights issues in what became known as the nullification crisis. With the Indian Removal Act of 1830, the U.S. Congress had given Jackson authority to negotiate removal treaties, exchanging Indian land in the East for land west of the Mississippi River. Jackson used the dispute with Georgia to put pressure on the Cherokees to sign a removal treaty.Template:Ref

Removal treaty and resistance

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Major Ridge

With the reelection of Andrew Jackson in 1832, some of the most strident Cherokee opponents of removal believed that removal was now inevitable. Led by Major Ridge, his son John Ridge and nephews Elias Boudinot and Stand Watie, they became known as the Ridge Party, or the Treaty Party. The Ridge Party believed that it was in the best interest of the Cherokee Nation to get the best possible terms from the U.S. government. Quietly and cautiously, John Ridge began unauthorized talks with the Jackson administration. Meanwhile, in anticipation of the Cherokee removal, the state of Georgia began holding lotteries in order to divide up the Cherokee tribal lands among white Georgians.

However, elected principal Chief John Ross and the majority of the Cherokee people remained adamantly opposed to removal. Political maneuvering began: Chief Ross cancelled the tribal elections in 1832, the Council impeached the Ridges, and a member of the Ridge Party was murdered. The Ridges responded by eventually forming their own council, representing only a fraction of the Cherokee people. Both the Ross government and the Ridge Party sent independent delegations to Washington.

In 1835, Jackson appointed the Reverend John F. Schermerhorn as a treaty commissioner. The U.S. government proposed to pay the Cherokee Nation 4.5 million dollars (among other considerations) to remove. These terms were rejected in October 1835 by the Cherokee Nation meeting in full council. Chief Ross, attempting to bridge the gap between his administration and the Treaty Party, traveled to Washington with John Ridge to open new negotiations, but they were turned away and told to deal with Schermerhorn.

Meanwhile, Schermerhorn organized a parley of the pro-removal council members at New Echota. Only five hundred Cherokees (out of thousands) responded to the summons, and on December 30 1835, twenty-one proponents of Cherokee removal, among them Major Ridge and Elias Boudinot, signed or left "X" marks on the Treaty of New Echota. John Ridge and Stand Watie signed the treaty when it was brought to Washington. Chief Ross, as expected, refused. The signatories were violating a Cherokee Nation law drafted by John Ridge and passed in 1829 which had made it illegal to sign away Cherokee lands.

Not a single elected tribal official signed the document. This treaty gave up all the Cherokee land east of the Mississippi. Despite the protests by the Cherokee National Council and principal Chief Ross that the document was a fraud, Congress ratified the treaty on May 23 1836 by just one vote. A number of Cherokees (including the Ridge party) left for the West at this time, joining those who had already emigrated. By the end of 1836, more than 6,000 Cherokees had moved to the West. However, about 17,000 remained, and the terms of the treaty gave them two years to leave.

Forced removal

The protests against the Treaty of New Echota continued. In the spring of 1838, Chief Ross presented a petition with more than 15,000 Cherokee signatures, asking Congress to invalidate the treaty. Many white Americans were also outraged by the dubious legality of the treaty, and called on the government not to force the Cherokees to move. For example, on April 23 1838, Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote a letter to Jackson's successor, President Martin Van Buren, urging him not to inflict "so vast an outrage upon the Cherokee Nation." Template:Ref

Nevertheless, as the 23 May 1838 deadline for voluntary removal approached. The current General John Wool was ordered to move the Cherokee, but he refused and resigned from his command in protest. President Van Buren replaced him with General Winfield Scott to head the forcible removal operation. He arrived at New Echota in May 17, 1838, in command of 7,000 soldiers. Soldiers began rounding up Cherokees in Georgia on 26 May 1838; ten days later operations began in Tennessee, North Carolina, and Alabama. About 17,000 Cherokees — along with their approximately 2,000 black slaves — were removed at gunpoint from their homes over three weeks and gathered together in camps, often with only the clothes on their backs. They were then transferred to departure points at Ross's Landing (Chattanooga, Tennessee) and Gunter's Landing (Guntersville, Alabama) on the Tennessee River, and at the Cherokee Agency on the Hiwassee River (Calhoun, Tennessee). From there, they were sent to the Indian Territory, mostly travelling on foot, or by some combination of horse, wagon, and boat, a distance of around 1,200 miles along one of three routes.

The Cherokee made their way to the Indian Territory through two main routes, by land and by water. The majority of the Cherokee traveled to the Indian Territory through a land route on existing roads. They were organized into several detachments each ranging in size from 700 to 1,600 people. Each group was headed by a conductor and an assistant conductor (both appointed by Chief John Ross).The extreme drought and death rate made it unbearably hard for them to forage for animals to eat. As a result the mortality rate continued to rise.

Three detachments of Cherokee (about 2,800 people) traveled by river to their new home. The first group left on June 6 by steamboat at Ross's Landing on the Tennessee River. They arrived at the mouth of the Salisaw Creek on June 19, 1838. The other two groups didn't have it as easy and faced severe drought and immense disease. They didn't arrive in Indian Territory until the end of ther summer.

The camps were plagued by dysentery and other illnesses, which led to many deaths. After three groups had been sent on the trail, a group of Cherokees petitioned General Scott for a delay until cooler weather made the journey less hazardous. This was granted, and meanwhile Chief Ross, finally accepting defeat, managed to have the remainder of the removal turned over to the supervision of the Cherokee Council. Although there were some objections within the U.S. government because of the additional cost, General Scott awarded a contract for removing the remaining 11,000 Cherokees to Chief Ross. The Cherokee-administered marches began on August 28 1838, and consisted of thirteen groups with an average of 1,000 people in each. Although this arrangement was an improvement for all concerned, disease still took many lives.

The number of people who died as a result of the Trail of Tears has been variously estimated. The official government count at the time was 424 deaths; an American doctor who traveled with one party estimated 2,000 deaths in the camps and 2,000 on the trail; his total of 4,000 deaths remains the most cited figure. A scholarly demographic study in 1973 estimated 2,000 total deaths; another in 1984 concluded that a total of 8,000 people died.Template:Ref

Aftermath

The Cherokees who removed initially settled near Tahlequah, Oklahoma. The political turmoil resulting from the Treaty of New Echota and the Trail of Tears led to the assassinations of Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot; of the leaders of the Treaty Party, only Stand Watie eluded his assassins. The population of the Cherokee Nation eventually rebounded, and today the Cherokees are the largest American Indian group in the United States.

There were some exceptions to removal. Perhaps 1,000 Cherokees evaded the U.S. soldiers and lived off the land in Georgia and other states. Those Cherokees who lived on private, individually owned lands (rather than communally owned tribal land) were not subject to removal. In North Carolina, about 400 Cherokees lived on land in the Great Smoky Mountains owned by a white man named William Holland Thomas (who had been adopted by Cherokees as a boy), and were thus not subject to removal. These North Carolina Cherokees became the Eastern Band Cherokee of today.

The Trail of Tears is generally considered to be one of the most regrettable episodes in American history. To commemorate this forced removal, the U.S. Congress designated the Trail Of Tears National Historic Trail in 1987. It stretches for 2,200 miles across nine states.

Notes

  1. Template:Note Remini p. 257, Prucha p. 212.
  2. Template:Note Letter to President Van Buren (http://www.rwe.org/comm/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=79&Itemid=252), Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1838-04-23
  3. Template:Note Prucha p. 241n58, Ehle pp. 390-92, Thornton p. 118.

References

  • Ehle, John. Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation. New York: Doubleday, 1988.
  • Prucha, Francis Paul. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. Volume I. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and his Indian Wars. New York: Viking, 2001.
  • Thornton, Russell. American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492. Norman and London: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.
  • Wallace, Anthony F.C. The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993.

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