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Timurid Empire

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 Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c.1375
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Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c.1375

The Timurid Empire (13701506) was founded by Timur (ruled 1370–1405), who conquered much of central and southwest Asia, and it was built up by his descendents (see Timurid dynasty). It stretched from Georgia to India at the time of Timur's death in February 1405. It split up around 1506.

Before Timur's death, he had appointed his grandson, Pir Muhammad, to succeed him, but Pir Muhammad died shortly after his grandfather, in 1406. The empire was taken over by his son Miran Shah, but he passed away in 1407. The youngest and only surviving son of Timur, Shah Rukh, seized power and ruled until his death in 1447. When Shah Rukh seized power, he made Herat his capital. His eldest son, Ulugh Beg, was appointed governor of Samarkand, while his second son, Baysunghur, served as his wazir in the capital.

 Map of the Timurid Empire in 1405
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Map of the Timurid Empire in 1405

Ulugh Beg, Shah Rukh's heir and only surviving son, was killed by his son 'Abd al-Latif in 1449. 'Abd al-Latif died in 1450. Abu Sa'id, a grandson of Miran Shah, ruled in Transoxiana, Afghanistan and northern Persia.

Husayn Bayqarah (d. 1506) was the last important ruler of the Timurid dynasty. The power of dynasty in Central Asia finally came to an end with the advent of the Turkic tribe Uzbeks from the north. The Uzbek ruler Muhammad Shaybani captured Samarkand from Babur, a descendant of Timur, in 1500 and again in 1505. In 1507 he also captured Herat. In 1526, Babur founded the Mughal Dynasty and Mughal Empire in India.de:Timuriden ja:ティムール朝

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