Timeline of the Second Italo-Abyssinian War
From Academic Kids
What follows is a timeline.
- August 2nd: Italo-Ethiopian Treaty of Friendship is signed. It declares a 20-year friendship between the two nations and gave Assab to Abyssinia. The two nations would also co-operate to build a road between Assab and Dessie.
- Italy builds a fort at Walwal, an oasis in the Ogaden.
- Italy starts to encroach further and further into what is generally considered Abyssinian territory.
- September 29: Italy and Abyssinia release a joint statement refuting any aggression between each other.
- November 23: An Anglo-Ethiopian boundary commission discovers the Italian force at Walwal. British members of the delegation soon retire to avoid an international incident.
- December 5: Tensions result in a border clash at Walwal.
- December 6: Abyssinia protests Italian aggression at Walwal.
- December 8: Italy demands apology for Walwal incident.
- December 11: Italy demands financial and strategic compensation.
- January 3: Abyssinia appeals to the League of Nations for arbitration into the Walwal incident.
- January 7: On Pierre Laval's visit to Rome, the French and Italians sign a pact which, among other conditions, allows Italy a free hand in dealing with Abyssinia in exchange for Italian support against German aggression.
- February 23: Benito Mussolini sends Emilio De Bono to Eritrea and Rodolfo Graziani to Italian Somaliland along with many Italian troops to prepare for invasion.
- March 8: Abyssinia again requests arbitration and notes Italian military build-up.
- March 13: Italy and Abyssinia agree on a neutral zone in the Ogaden.
- March 17: Abyssinia again appeals to the League due to Italian build-up.
- March 22: The Italians yield to pressure from the League of Nations for arbitration into the Walwal incident.
- May 11: Abyssinia again protests the Italian mobilization.
- May 20-21: The League of Nations holds a special session to discuss the crisis in Abyssinia.
- May 25: League council resolves to meet if no fifth arbitrator has been selected by June 25, or if settlement isn't reached by August 25.
- June 19: Abyssinia requests neutral observers.
- June 23-24: Britain sends Anthony Eden to offer concessions about Abyssinia, they are rejected by Italy.
- June 25: Italian and Abyssinian officials meet in the Hague to discuss arbitration.
- July 9: The discussions fall apart.
- July 25: Britain declares an arms embargo on both Italy and Abyssinia.
- July 26: The League confirms that no fifth member has been selected.
- August 3: The League limits arbitration talks to matters except for the sovereignty of Walwal. They are to meet again on September 4th to examine relations between the two countries.
- August 12: Abyssinia pleads for arms embargo to be lifted.
- August 16: France and Britain offer Italy large concessions in Abyssinia to avert war which are rejected.
- August 22: Britain reaffirms its embargo on armaments.
- September 3: The League exonerates both Italy and Abyssinia of the Walwal incident since both powers believed it was within their border.
- September 10: Pierre Laval, Anthony Eden and Sir Samual Hoare agree on limitations to Italian sanctions.
- September 25: Abyssinia again asks for neutral observers.
- September 28: Abyssinia begins to mobilize its antiquated army.
- October 3: Italy launches its armies from Eritrea into Abyssinia. They are condemned by the League for attacking without formal declaration of war.
- October 5: The Italian army captures Adigrat.
- October 6: The Italian army captures Adwa.
- October 7: The League of Nations declares Italy the aggressor, prepares to set sanctions against it.
- October 11: League members voted to impose sanctions unless Italy withdraws.
- October 15: The Italian army captures Axum.
- October 18: Britain assures Italy it will not take independent action in the Mediterranean.
- November 6: Due to the cautious approach of De Bono, he is replaced by Pietro Badoglio
- November 8: The Italian army captures Mekele.
- November 12: Graziani creates a second front in the war by attacking from Italian Somaliland.
- November 18: Sanctions go into affect against Italy. They do not include oil or steel.
- December 8: Hoare-Laval Plan is signed. It concedes two-thirds of Abyssinia to Italy.
- December 9: Hoare-Laval Plan is made public. It is rejected by Abyssinians and causes large political embarrassment in France and Britain.
- December 23: Pietro Badoglio orders the use of airsprayed mustard gas to speed up the invasion. This was in direct violation of the 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions, which outlawed the use of chemical weapons.
- January 3: Selassie protests to League about Italy's bombing of villages.
- January 20: Neghelli is captured. Abyssinia asks for stronger sanctions against Italy.
- January 23: The Battle of Tembien, Abyssinian forces take 8,000 casualties compared to Italy's 1,100.
- February 10: The Battle of Amba Aradam
- February 27: The Second battle of Tembien, few Abyssinian survivors.
- March 3: League asks Italy and Abyssinia to open negotiations.
- March 5: Abyssinia accepts negotiations appeal.
- March 20: Abyssinia again appeals to the League, stating that nothing effective had yet been enforced.
- March 21: Selassie protests to the League again, bringing forth Italian atrocities such as chemical weapons, destruction of ambulances and the massacre of civilians.
- March 29: Harar is firebombed.
- March 31: The Battle of Maychew, an attempted Abyssinian counter-attack and the last major battle of the war fails.
- April 1: Abyssinia pleads for removal of arms embargo, financial assistance, and heavier sanctions on Italy.
- April 17: The League admits failure in the Italo-Ethiopian dispute.
- April 27: Princess Tsahai of Abyssinia appeals to the League.
- May 2: Haile Selassie flees into exile.
- May 5: Addis Ababa, the capital, is captured by Italian forces.
- May 7: Italy officially annexes Abyssinia.
- May 9: Victor Emmanuel III is proclaimed Emperor of Abyssinia.
- June 1: Italy merges Abyssinia with Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, calls the new state Africa Orientale Italiana (Italian East Africa).
- July 4: The League drops all sanctions against Italy.
- December: Italy declares the country pacified.