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Timeline of programming languages

From Academic Kids

This is a chronological list of programming languages.


Legend:

( Entry ) means not a universal programming language
* <YEAR> means no direct predecessor / unique language




Predecessor(s) Year Name Chief Developer, Company

Pre 1950

* ~1840 first program Ada Lovelace
* 1936 Lambda calculus (concept) Alonzo Church
* 1945 Plankalkül (concept) Konrad Zuse

1950s

* 1952 A-0 Grace Hopper
* 1954 Mark I Autocode Tony Brooker
A-0 1954-1955 FORTRAN "0" (concept) John W. Backus at IBM
A-0 1954 ARITH-MATIC Grace Hopper
A-0 1954 MATH-MATIC Grace Hopper
* 1954 IPL V (concept) Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert Simon
A-0 1955 FLOW-MATIC Grace Hopper
IPL 1956-1958 LISP (concept) John McCarthy
FLOW-MATIC 1957 COMTRAN Bob Bemer
FORTRAN 0 1957 FORTRAN "I" (implementation) John W. Backus at IBM
* 1957 COMIT (concept)
FORTRAN I 1958 FORTRAN II John W. Backus at IBM
FORTRAN 1958 ALGOL 58 (IAL) International effort
* 1958 IPL V (implementation) Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert Simon
FLOW-MATIC, COMTRAN 1959 COBOL (concept) The Codasyl Committee
IPL 1959 LISP (implementation) John McCarthy
1959 TRAC (concept) Mooers

1960s

ALGOL 58 1960 ALGOL 60
FLOW-MATIC, COMTRAN 1960 COBOL 61 (implementation) The Codasyl Committee
* 1961 COMIT (implementation)
FORTRAN II 1962 FORTRAN IV
* 1962 APL (concept) Iverson
ALGOL 58 1962 MAD Arden, et. al.
ALGOL 60 1962 SIMULA (concept)
FORTRAN II, COMIT 1962 SNOBOL Griswold, et al.
ALGOL 60 1963 CPL Barron, Strachey, et al.
SNOBOL 1963 SNOBOL3 Griswold, et al.
ALGOL 60 1963 ALGOL 68 (concept) van Wijngaarden, et al.
ALGOL 58 1963 JOSS I Cliff Shaw, RAND
CPL, LISP 1964 COWSEL Burstall, Popplestone
ALGOL 60, COBOL, FORTRAN 1964 PL/I (concept) IBM
FORTRAN II, JOSS 1964 BASIC Kemeny and Kurtz
1964 TRAC (implementation) Mooers
1964? IITRAN
JOSS 1965 TELCOMP BBN
JOSS I 1966 JOSS II Chuck Baker, RAND
FORTRAN IV 1966 FORTRAN 66
LISP 1966 ISWIM Landin
ALGOL 60 1966 CORAL66
CPL 1967 BCPL Richards
FORTRAN, TELCOMP 1967 MUMPS Massachusetts General Hospital
* 1967 APL (implementation) Iverson
ALGOL 60 1967 SIMULA 67 (implementation) Dahl, Myhrhaug,Nygaard at Norsk Regnesentral
SNOBOL3 1967 SNOBOL4 Griswold, et al.
PL/I 1967 XPL W. M. Mckeeman, et al. at University Of California Santa Cruz, California
J. J. Horning, et al. at Stanford University
COWSEL 1968 POP-1 Burstall, Popplestone
1968 FORTH (concept) Moore
LISP 1968 LOGO Papert
* 1968 REFAL (implementation) Valentin Turchin
ALGOL 60 1969 ALGOL 68 (implementation) van Wijngaarden, et al.
ALGOL 60, COBOL, FORTRAN 1969 PL/I (implementation) IBM

1970s

1970? FORTH (implementation) Moore
POP-1 1970 POP-2
ALGOL 60 1971 Pascal Wirth, Jensen
Pascal, XPL 1971 Sue Holt et al. at University of Toronto
SIMULA 67 1972 Smalltalk-72 Xerox PARC
B, BCPL, ALGOL 68 1972 C Ritchie
* 1972 INTERCAL
2-level W-Grammar 1972 Prolog Colmerauer
Pascal, BASIC 1973 COMAL Christensen, Løfstedt
Pascal, Sue 1973 LIS Ichbiah et al. at CII Honeywell Bull
BASIC 1974 GRASS DeFanti
Business BASIC 1974 BASIC FOUR BASIC FOUR CORPORATION
LISP 1975 Scheme Sussman, Steele
Pascal 1975? Modula Wirth
BASIC 1975 Altair BASIC Gates, Allen
ALGOL 68, BLISS, ECL, HAL 1975 CS-4 Brosgol at Intermetrics
Smalltalk-72 1976 Smalltalk-76 Xerox PARC
C, FORTRAN 1976 Ratfor Kernighan
* 1977 FP John Backus
* 1977 Bourne Shell (sh) Bourne
MUMPS 1977 Standard MUMPS
SNOBOL 1977 ICON(concept) Griswold
ALGOL 68, LIS 1977 Green Ichbiah et al. at CII Honeywell Bull for US Dept of Defense
ALGOL 68, CS-4 1977 Red Brosgol et al. at Intermetrics for US Dept of Defense
ALGOL 68, 1977 Blue Goodenough et al. at SofTech for US Dept of Defense
ALGOL 68, 1977 Yellow Spitzen et al. at SRI International for US Dept of Defense
FORTRAN IV 1978 FORTRAN 77
Modula 1978? Modula-2 Wirth
* 1978? MATLAB Moler at the University of New Mexico
Algol60 1978? SMALL Brownlee at the University of Auckland
* 1978 VISICALC Bricklin, Frankston at VisiCorp
PL/I, BASIC, EXEC 2 1979 REXX Cowlishaw
C, SNOBOL 1979 Awk Aho, Weinberger, Kernighan
SNOBOL 1979 ICON(implementation) Griswold
* 1979 Vulcan dBase-II Ratliff

1980s

C, SIMULA 67 1980 C with Classes Stroustrup
Smalltalk-76 1980 Smalltalk-80 Xerox PARC
Smalltalk, C 1982 Objective-C Brad Cox
Green 1983 Ada 83 U.S. Department of Defense
C with Classes 1983 C++ Stroustrup
Pascal 1983 Turbo Pascal Hejlsberg
BASIC 1983 True BASIC Kemeny, Kurtz at Dartmouth College
sh 1984? Korn Shell (ksh) Dave Korn
* 1984 Standard ML
dBase 1984 CLIPPER Nantucket
LISP 1984 Common Lisp Guy Steele and many others
1977MUMPS 1985 1984 MUMPS
dBase 1985 PARADOX Borland
Interpress 1985 PostScript Warnock
BASIC 1985 QuickBASIC Microsoft
1986 Miranda David Turner at University of Kent
1986 LabVIEW National Instruments
SIMULA 67 1986 Eiffel Meyer
1986 Informix-4GL Informix
C 1986 PROMAL
Smalltalk 1987 Self (concept) Sun Microsystems Inc.
* 1987 HyperTalk Apple
* 1987 SQL-87
C, sed, awk, sh 1987 Perl Wall
MATLAB 1988 Octave
dBase-III 1988 dBase-IV
Awk, Lisp 1988 Tcl Ousterhout
REXX 1988 Object REXX Simon Nash
Ada 1988 SPARK Bernard A. Carré
Turbo Pascal 1989 Turbo Pascal OOP Borland
C 1989 Standard C89/90 ANSI X3.159-1989 (adopted by ISO in 1990)
Modula-2 1989 Modula-3 Cardeli, et al.
Modula-2 1989 Oberon Wirth

1990s

Oberon 1990 Object Oberon Wirth
APL, FP 1990 J Iverson, R. Hui at Iverson Software
Miranda 1990 Haskell
1984 MUMPS 1990 1990 MUMPS
Fortran 77 1991 Fortran 90
Object Oberon 1991 Oberon-2 Wirth
ABC 1991 Python Van Rossum
1991 Q
QuickBASIC 1991 Visual Basic Alan Cooper at Microsoft
SQL-87 1992 SQL-92
Turbo Pascal OOP 1992 Borland Pascal
ksh 1993? Z Shell (zsh)
Smalltalk 1993? Self (implementation) Sun Microsystems Inc.
Forth 1993 FALSE Oortmerrsen
FALSE 1993 Brainfuck Müller
HyperTalk 1993 Revolution Transcript
HyperTalk 1993 AppleScript Apple
APL, Lisp 1993 K Whitney
Smalltalk, Perl 1993 Ruby
1993 Lua Roberto Ierusalimschy et al. at Tecgraf, PUC-Rio
C 1993 ZPL Chamberlain et al. at University of Washington
Lisp 1994 Dylan many people at Apple Computer
Ada 83 1995 Ada 95 ISO
Borland Pascal 1995 Delphi Anders Hejlsberg at Borland
C, SIMULA67 OR C++, Smalltalk 1995 Java James Gosling at Sun Microsystems
1990MUMPS 1995 1995 MUMPS
Self, Java 1995? LiveScript Brendan Eich atNetscape
Fortran 90 1996 Fortran 95
APL, Perl 1996 Perl Data Language (PDL) Karl Glazebrook, Jarle Brinchmann, Tuomas Lukka, and Christian Soeller
REXX 1996 NetRexx Cowlishaw
LiveScript 1997? JavaScript Brendan Eich at Netscape
SML 84 1997 SML 97
PHP 3 1997 PHP
Scheme 1997 Pico Free University of Brussels
Smalltalk-80, Self 1997 Squeak Smalltalk Alan Kay, et al. at Apple Computer
JavaScript 1997? ECMAScript ECMA TC39-TG1
C++, Standard C 1998 Standard C++ ANSI/ISO Standard C++
Prolog 1998 Erlang Open Source Erlang at Ericsson
Standard C89/90 1999 Standard C99 ISO/IEC 9899:1999

2000s

FP, Forth 2000 Joy von Thun
C, C++ 2000 D Walter Bright at Digital Mars
C, C++, Java 2000 C# Anders Hejlsberg at Microsoft(ECMA)
Scriptol 2001 Scriptol Denis Sureau at Scriptol.org
Whitespace 2003 Whitespace Brady and Morris
Perl, C++ 2003 S2 Fitzpatrick, Atkins
C#, ML, MetaHaskell 2003 Nemerle University of Wroclaw
J, FL, K 2003 NGL E. Herrera at Tlällian
Joy, Forth, Lisp 2003 Factor Slava Pestov
Fortran 95 2004 Fortran 2003
Python, C#, Ruby 2004 Boo Rodrigo B. de Oliveira

See also

External links

fr:chronologie des langages de programmation it:Elenco cronologico dei linguaggi di programmazione

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