Timeline of low-temperature technology
From Academic Kids
- 1877 - Raoul Pictet and Louis Paul Cailletet liquefy oxygen
- 1883 - Z.F. Wroblewski condenses experimentally useful quantities of liquid oxygen
- 1892 - James Dewar invents the vacuum-insulated, silver-plated glass Dewar flask
- 1895 - Carl von Linde files for patent protection of his process for liquefaction of atmospheric air or other gases (approved in 1903).
- 1898 - James Dewar condenses liquid hydrogen.
- 1905 - Carl von Linde obtains pure oxygen and nitrogen.
- 1908 - Heike Kamerlingh Onnes liquefies helium
- 1911 - Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discloses his research on metallic low temperature phenomenon characterised by no electrical resistance, calling it superconductivity.
- 1926 - Einstein Refrigerator is a type of refrigerator co-invented by Albert Einstein and former student Leó Szilárd.
- 1926 - Willem Hendrik Keesom solidifies helium
- 1937 - Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa, John F. Allen, and Don Misener discover superfluidity using helium-4 at 2.2 K
- 1951 - H. London invents the principle of the dilution refrigerator
- 1963 - W. Gifford and R. Longsworth invent the pulse tube cooler
- 1972 - David Lee, Robert C. Richardson and Douglas Osheroff discover superfluidity in helium-3 at 0.002 K.
- 1986 - Karl Alexander Müller and J. Georg Bednorz discover high-temperature superconductivity
- 1995 - Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman create the first Bose-Einstein condensate, using a dilute gas of Rubidium-87.
- 2000 - Peter Toennies demonstrates superfluidity of hydrogen at 0.15 K