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Timeline of computing

From Academic Kids

History of computing
Before 1960
1960s to present
Operating systems
Timeline

This article presents a detailed timeline of events in the history of computing. For a narrative explaining the overall developments, see the related History of computing.

Computing timelines: 500 BC-1949, 1950-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-present

Resources

See also

Graphical timeline

<timeline> Preset = TimeHorizontal_AutoPlaceBars_UnitYear ImageSize = width:800 barincrement:16 PlotArea = left:30 right:45 bottom:40

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 id:section value:rgb(0.8,0.8,0)
 id:mark1   value:rgb(0.7,0,0)
 id:years   value:gray(0.5)

BackgroundColors = canvas:canvas

Period = from:1940 till:2005 ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:10 start:1940 gridcolor:grid1 ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:1 start:1940 gridcolor:grid2 AlignBars = justify

BarData=

 bar:title
  1. bar:periods
 bar:dummy0 # empty bar functions as separator
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 bar:section3
 barset:hardware_systems
 bar:dummy3
 bar:section4
 barset:operating_systems
 bar:dummy4
 bar:section5
 barset:sys_dev_software
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  1. explanation: attribute 'barset' instead of 'bar' means consecutive data lines are automatically placed on new bar
  2. data lines are lines containing at: or from: & till: attributes
  3. 'barset:break' means 'reset barcounter' = next line will be placed at first bar in barset
  4. 'barset:skip' means 'increment barcounter' = skip one bar for next data line (to allow extra space
  5. for text containing line break = ~)

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  1. bar:periods
  2. from:1964 till:1972 text:"3rd Generation" width:16"
  1. at:1975 text"Microsoft founded"
  2. at:1976 text"Apple Computer founded"
  3. at:1983 text"Borland founded"


 fontsize:M
 width:16
 color:section
 mark:(line,section)
 shift:(5,-6)
 bar:title    from:start till:end text:"History of Computing" fontsize:XL anchor:middle align:center width:25 color:canvas mark:(line,canvas)
 bar:section1 from:start till:end text:"Predictions/(Concepts)"
 bar:section2 from:start till:end text:"First use/(Inventions)"
 bar:section3 from:start till:end text:"Hardware Systems/(Processors)"
 bar:section4 from:start till:end text:"Operating Systems"
 bar:section5 from:start till:end text:"Programming Languages"
 bar:section6 from:start till:end text:"New Application Areas"
 shift:(5,-5)
 fontsize:S
 mark:(line,mark1)
 width:8
 barset:quotes
 at:1943 text:"'I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.' Thomas J. Watson, chairman of IBM"
 at:1949 text:"'Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons'"
 at:1950 text:"'"We'll have to think up bigger problems if we want to keep them busy.' Howard Aiken"
 at:1950 text:"(Turing Test)~_Alan Turing"
 shift:(5,5)
 at:1965 text:"Moore's law: processor complexity will double every year,~revised in 1975: complexity will double every two years. Gordon E. Moore"
  1. barset:skip
 shift:(5,-5)
 at:1977 align:right shift:(-5,-5) text:"'There is no reason anyone would want a computer~in their home' (Ken Olson, Chairman DEC)"
 shift:(5,5)
 at:1981 text:"(Quantum Computer)~_Richard Feynmann
 fontsize:S
 barset:first_use
 shift:(5,-5)
 at:1940 text:"teletype"
 at:1947 text:"(transistor)"
 at:1948 text:"random access memory"
 at:1948 text:"magnetic drum"
 at:1949 text:"registers"
 at:1953 text:"magnetic core memory"
 at:1956 text:"hard disk"
 at:1957 text:"dot matrix printer"
 at:1958 text:"integrated circuit"
 at:1962 text:"spooling,~interrupts,~virtual memory~paging~(ATLAS)"
 barset:skip
 barset:break
 at:1963 text:"mouse"
 at:1965 text:"time-sharing"
 at:1965 text:"fuzzy logic"
 at:1965 text:"packet switching"
 at:1969 text:"ARPANET precursor~of Internet"
 barset:skip
 at:1969 text:"RS-232"
 at:1970 text:"dynamic RAM"
 at:1971 text:"floppy disk"
 at:1971 text:"microprocessor~(4004)"
 barset:skip
 at:1972 text:"game console~(PONG)"
 barset:skip
 at:1973 text:"TCP/IP 1982 ??"
 at:1973 text:"ethernet"
 at:1975 text:"single-board~computer"
 barset:break
 at:1976 text:"laser printer"
 at:1976 text:"supercomputer~(Cray)"
 barset:skip
 at:1979 text:"compact disk"
 at:1981 text:"WIMP (GUI)"
 at:1981 text:"CGA video card"
 at:1982 text:"MIDI"
 at:1982 text:"RISC cpu"
 at:1982 text:"portable~PC"
 barset:skip
 barset:skip
 at:1983 text:"math~coprocessor"
 barset:skip
 at:1983 text:"PC harddisk"
 at:1984 text:"GNU project"
 at:1984 text:"DNS (Domain~Name Server)"
 barset:skip
 at:1984 text:"[[[Advanced Technology Attachment|IDE]] interface"
 at:1985 text:"Expanded Memory"
 at:1985 text:"Postscript"
 barset:break
 at:1985 text:"EGA video card"
 at:1985 text:"CD_ROM"
 at:1986 text:"SCSI interface"
 at:1987 text:"massive parallel~computing~(Connection Machine)"
 barset:skip
 barset:skip
 at:1987 text:"VGA video card"
 at:1987 text:"PC sound card (AD-LIB)"
 at:1988 text:"optical chip"
 at:1988 text:"EISA bus"
 at:1989 text:"ATA interface"
 at:1990 text:"SVGA video card,~VESA driver"
 barset:skip
 at:1991 text:"ISA bus"
 at:1992 text:"CD-I"
 at:1994 text:"DNA computing"
  1. major or well known operating systems selection based on
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_500_BC-1949
 barset:hardware_systems
 at:1940 text:"Model I~Relay Calculator"
 barset:skip
 at:1941 text:"Atanasoff Berry Computer"
 barset:skip
 at:1941 text:"Z3"
 at:1943 text:"Harvard Mark I"
 at:1943 text:"Relay Interpolator"
 at:1943 text:"Colossus"
 at:1946 text:"ENIAC"
 barset:break
 at:1962 text:"ATLAS"
 at:1964 text:"IBM 360"
 at:1964 text:"DEC PDP-8"
 at:1965 text:"CDC 6600~1st supercomputer"
 barset:skip
 at:1971 text:"electronic~calculator~TI"
 barset:skip
 at:1971 text:"(4004)"
 at:1972 text:"scientific~calculator~HP"
 barset:skip
 at:1972 text:"(8008)"
 at:1972 text:"1st 32-bit~ supermini"
 barset:skip
 at:1974 text:"(8080)"
 at:1974 text:"(MC 6800)"
 at:1974 text:"Altair 8800~personal~computer"
 barset:skip
 barset:break
 at:1976 text:"(Z80)"
 at:1976 text:"(6502)"
 at:1976 text:"Cray-1"
 at:1977 text:"Apple II"
 at:1977 text:"TRS-80"
 at:1978 text:"(8086)"
 at:1979 text:"PET"
 at:1979 text:"(68000)"
 at:1980 text:"VIC-20"
 at:1980 text:"ZX80"
 at:1981 text:"8010~'Star'"
 barset:skip
 at:1981 text:"ZX81"
 at:1981 text:"IBM PC"
 at:1982 text:"BBC~Micro"
 barset:skip
 at:1982 text:"C64"
 barset:break
 at:1982 text:"(80286)"
 at:1982 text:"Compaq~Portable"
 barset:skip
 at:1982 text:"ZX Spectrum"
 at:1983 text:"Lisa"
 at:1983 text:"IBM XT"
 at:1983 text:"IBM PC jr"
 at:1983 text:"Macintosh"
 at:1984 text:"LaserJet printer"
 at:1984 text:"IBM AT"
 at:1985 text:"Amiga 1000"
 at:1985 text:"Atari ST"
 at:1986 text:"Amstrad 1512"
 at:1987 text:"Acorn Archimedes"
 at:1987 text:"Connection Machine"
 at:1987 text:"IBM PS/2"
 barset:break
 at:1989 text:"(80486)"
 at:1993 text:"(66 MHz Pentium)"
 at:1998 text:"iMac"
 at:1999 text:"PowerMac"
 at:2000 text:"(1 GHz Pentium)"
 at:2003 text:"PowerPC G5
 at:2003 text:"Athlon 64
  1. major or well known operating systems selection based on
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_systems_timeline
 barset:operating_systems
 at:1959 text:"GM Research OS for IBM 701"
 at:1961 text:"CTSS"
 at:1965 text:"OS/360"
 at:1965 text:"Multics"
 at:1967 text:"CP/CMS"
 at:1969 text:"ACP"
 at:1969 text:"Unix"
 at:1972 text:"VM/CMS"
 at:1974 text:"MVS"
 at:1976 text:"CP/M"
 at:1978 text:"Apple DOS 3.1"
 at:1978 text:"VMS"
 at:1980 text:"OS-9"
 at:1981 text:"MS-DOS"
 at:1982 text:"SunOS"
 at:1983 text:"Lisa OS"
 barset:break
 at:1984 text:"Macintosh OS"
 at:1985 text:"AmigaOS"
 at:1985 text:"Atari TOS"
 at:1985 text:"Windows 1.0"
 at:1986 text:"AIX"
 at:1986 text:"GS-OS"
 at:1986 text:"HP-UX"
 at:1987 text:"IRIX"
 at:1987 text:"Minix"
 at:1987 text:"OS/2"
 at:1987 text:"Windows 2.0"
 at:1988 text:"OS/400"
 at:1989 text:"NeXTSTEP"
 at:1989 text:"RISC OS"
 at:1989 text:"SCO Unix"
 at:1990 text:"BeOS"
 at:1990 text:"OSF/1"
 at:1991 text:"Linux"
 barset:break
 at:1992 text:"Solaris"
 at:1992 text:"Windows 3.1"
 at:1993 text:"Windows NT 3.1"
 at:1994 text:"Red Hat Linux"
 at:1995 text:"OpenBSD"
 at:1995 text:"OS/390"
 at:1995 text:"Windows 95"
 at:1996 text:"Debian GNU/Linux"
 at:1997 text:"Mac OS 7.6"
 at:1998 text:"Windows 98"
 at:1999 text:"Mac OS 8"
 at:2000 text:"Mac OS 9"
 at:2000 text:"Windows ME"
 at:2000 text:"Windows 2000"
 at:2001 text:"Mac OS X"
 at:2001 text:"Windows XP"
 at:2001 text:"z/OS"
 at:2003 text:"Windows~Server~2003" shift:(5,1)
  1. major or well known programming languages & dev tools selection based on
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_programming_languages
  3. generally only first versions are listed
 barset:sys_dev_software
 at:1945 text:"Plankalkül"
 at:1952 text:"A-0"
 at:1954 text:"Mark I"
 at:1954 text:"FORTRAN"
 at:1958 text:"Algol 58"
 at:1959 text:"LISP"
 at:1960 text:"COBOL"
 at:1962 text:"APL"
 barset:break
 at:1962 text:"Simula"
 at:1964 text:"PL/I"
 at:1964 text:"BASIC"
 at:1968 text:"Logo"
 at:1971 text:"Pascal"
 at:1972 text:"Smalltalk"
 at:1972 text:"C"
 at:1972 text:"PROLOG"
 barset:break
 at:1978 text:"VISICALC"
 at:1979 text:"REXX"
 at:1979 text:"DBASE-II"
 at:1983 text:"Ada"
 at:1983 text:"C++"
 barset:skip
 at:1983 text:"Turbo~Pascal"
 barset:break
 at:1985 text:"PARADOX"
 at:1985 text:"PostScript"
 at:1986 text:"Eiffel"
 at:1987 text:"HyperTalk"
 at:1987 text:"SQL"
 at:1987 text:"Perl"
 at:1991 text:"Python"
 at:1991 text:"Visual Basic"
 barset:break
 at:1993 text:"AppleScript"
 at:1995 text:"Delphi"
 at:1995 text:"JavaScript"
 at:1995 text:"Java"
 at:1997 text:"PHP"
 at:2000 text:"D"
 at:2000 text:"C#"
 at:2001 text:"KYLIX"
 barset:applications
 at:1951 text:"electronic music"
 at:1960 text:"compiler compiler"
 at:1962 text:"computer game"
 at:1965 text:"bulletin board"
 at:1965 text:"email (CTSS)"
 at:1965 text:"super computing"
 at:1968 text:"interactive computing~(mouse, windows, hypertext,~full screen word processing)"
 barset:skip
 barset:skip
 barset:break
 at:1969 text:"networking"
 at:1970 text:"flight data processor"
 at:1972 text:"arcade video game"
 at:1977 text:"spreadsheet"
 at:1979 text:"Usenet"
 at:1984 text:"WYSIWYG word processing"
 at:1989 text:"World Wide Web"
 at:1995 text:"wikis"
 at:1997 text:"Weblog"


  1. extra years
 mark:(line,grid1)
 bar:dummy1
 shift:(2,-8)
 fontsize:XS
 textcolor:years
 at:1940 text:40
 at:1950 text:50
 at:1960 text:60
 at:1970 text:70
 at:1980 text:80
 at:1990 text:90
 shift:(-10,-8)
 at:2000 text:2000
 bar:dummy2
 shift:(2,-8)
 at:1940 text:40
 at:1950 text:50
 at:1960 text:60
 at:1970 text:70
 at:1980 text:80
 at:1990 text:90
 shift:(-10,-8)
 at:2000 text:2000
 bar:dummy3
 shift:(2,-8)
 at:1940 text:40
 at:1950 text:50
 at:1960 text:60
 at:1970 text:70
 at:1980 text:80
 at:1990 text:90
 shift:(-10,-8)
 at:2000 text:2000
 bar:dummy4
 shift:(2,-8)
 at:1940 text:40
 at:1950 text:50
 at:1960 text:60
 at:1970 text:70
 at:1980 text:80
 at:1990 text:90
 shift:(-10,-8)
 at:2000 text:2000
 bar:dummy5
 shift:(2,-8)
 at:1940 text:40
 at:1950 text:50
 at:1960 text:60
 at:1970 text:70
 at:1980 text:80
 at:1990 text:90
 shift:(-10,-8)
 at:2000 text:2000

TextData =

 textcolor:black fontsize:XS
 pos:(30,2)  text:"produced with EasyTimeline"
 pos:(620,2) text:"reference en:Timeline of computing"

</timeline>fr:Chronologie informatique

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