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Timeline of Slovene history

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This is a timeline of key events in the history of Slovenia and the nations that lived and live on Slovene ethnic territory.

History, unlike mathematics, is an imperfect science and can never be complete or totally impartial. --Ivan Kobal

NOTE the claim that the ancient Italic Veneti were a Proto-Slovene people is untrue and has subsequently been disproven by Venetic inscriptions. The Venetic language is related to the Italic languages.

NOTE the other claim, that the ancient Venedes are connected to the proto-Slovenes, is considered extremely unlikely and pseudo-historical, since so little evidence exists concerning the Venedes.

NOTE the ancient Veneti of the Adriatic (after whom Venice was named) are not the same people as the Venedes who once inhabited the Vistula region, and scholars do not consider any relation.

See Veneti (disambiguation).

Contents

1200s BC

500s BC

  • - The Veneti, a people who spoke a centum language close to the Italic languages, are dwelling in northeastern Italy and parts of Slovenia. A well-developed Illyrian population exists as far north as the upper Sava valley in what is now Slovenia. Illyrian friezes discovered near the present-day Slovene city of Ljubljana depict ritual sacrifices, feasts, battles, sporting events, and other activities.

200s BC

100s BC

0s BC

1s

Slovenia under the Roman Empire
Enlarge
Slovenia under the Roman Empire
  • 7 - Pannonians, with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, revolt, and are overcome by Tiberius and Germanicus (15 BC-19), after a hard-fought campaign which lasted for two years.
  • 9 - The Roman Empire finally conquers Pannonia (which includes the biggest part of present-day Slovenia). Roman legions stay in Poetovio (currently Ptuj).
  • Circa 40 - The Noricum Kingdom is ultimately incorporated to the Roman Empire by the Roman caesar Claudius (10 BC-54, reigned 41-54). Noricum includes Carinthia and most of Styria. From now on the whole of the Slovene lands is within the borders of the Roman Empire.
  • 46 - Celje gets its municipal rights under the name municipium Claudia Celeia.

100s

200s

  • Circa 290 - Noricum is divided under Roman Emperor Diocletian (245-313, reigned 284-305) into Noricum ripense (along the Danube) and mediterranean (the southern mountainous district).

300s

400s

  • Circa 400 - St. Jerome hypothetically translates some writings in a Slovene dialect of Proto-Slavic into Latin.

500s

  • Circa 500/550 to 570/592 - The ancestors of Slovenes settle in Eastern Alps (Julian Alps, Karavanke), occupying an area more than twice the size of today's Slovenia.
  • Circa 551 - An Ostrogothic historian Jordanes writes in The origin and deeds of the Goths 3 about 3 nations 'Veneti' ('Wenethi'), 'Sklavens' ('Sclaveni', 'Slevene' ?) and probably the east (or south Slavs), the bravest nation among them called Antes (Greek Antae, Russian/Ukrainian Anty, Slovene Anti). All his three terms might also be just synonyms for one nation. Jordanes actually states that there are three names for Wenethi - Wenethi, Antes and Sclaveni (Jordanes, Getica, ch. XXIII).
Missing image
Karantania_597.png
Karantania with Carniola around 597

  • 568 - The Langobards from the margin of Pannonia break and move into Italy. The independent Slovene state possibly appears in the Eastern Alpine area (provincia Sclaborum), later named in sources as Sclauinia or Karantania.
  • 595 - According to Paul the Deacon, who was a medieval Lombard chronicler, in 595 Tassilo, king of Bavarians, attacked 'the province of Sclabi'. Some consider it the first mentioning of the Karantania state. 2X

600s

700s

  • 745 - Karantania loses its independence and becomes a margraviate and tantamount part of the semifeudal Frankish empire later under the rule of king Charlemagne (742-814, reigned 771-814) due to pressing danger of Avar tribes from the east.

800s

Central Europe around 870

900s

1000s

1200s

1300s

1400s

  • 1414 - The Habsburg Duke Ernest the Iron (1377-1424) thrones according to the ancient Karantanian ritual of installing dukes on the Duke's Stone and he addresses again as an archduke.
  • 1451 April 11 - Celje acquires town rights by orders from Celje count Frederic II (Friderik II).
  • 1461 - Ljubljana becomes the seat of the diocese.
  • 1473 - The city walls and defensive moat are built in Celje.

1500s

1600s

1700s

  • 1701 - The Philharmonic Society (Academia philharmonicorum) is established in Ljubljana.

1800s

  • 1809 - The Lower Carinthia incorporates to France as Dutchy of Carinthia was divided into two parts, Upper or Western Carinthia and Lower or Eastern.

1810s

  • 1813 - The Lower Carinthia is reconqured.

1820s

1830s

1840s

  • 1845 - First works on the "Southern Railway" between Celje and Ljubljana begin,
  • 1846 April 27- First locomotive of the "Southern Railway" comes to Celje.
  • 1846 May 18 - Trial run of the first train on the "Southern Railway" to Celje is performed.
  • 1846 June 2 - The "Southern Railway" to Celje is open for public.
  • 1848 - The United Slovenia (Zedinjena Slovenija), the first Slovene political programme rises.
  • 1848 April 18 - The Ljubljana railway station is finished.
  • 1849 August 18 - First locomotive arrives at Ljubljana railway station.
  • 1849 September 16- First train of the "Southern Railway" arrives in Ljubljana.
  • 1849 September 19 - "Southern Railway" to Ljubljana is ceremonially opened.
  • 1849 - The Duchy of Carinthia is created as a separate crownland.

1850s

  • 1850 May 14 - Emperor Francis Joseph lays the foundation stone of Trieste railway station.
  • 1851 - Society of St. Hermagoras (Mohorjeva družba) first Slovene publisher is established in Klagenfurt (Celovec), which publishes books in Slovene.
  • 1857 July 18 - The "Carinthian railway" between Maribor and Klagenfurt is being bult.
  • 1857 July 27 - The "Southern Railway" is completed and opened.

1860s

  • 1862 November 12 - The railway line of the "Carintnhian railway" on the route Maribor - Vuzenica is built.
  • 1863 - May 31 - The "Carinthian railway" is built
  • 1864 - The Kozler brothers establish the Pivovarna Union (The Union Brewery).
  • 1869 May 17 - Rally at Vižmarje near Ljubljana gathers around 30,000 people where programme of the United Slovenia is demanded.

1880s

1890s

  • 1890 May 1 - Labour Day is celebrated first time.
  • 1890 - The railway line on the route Radgona - Ljutomer is built.
  • 1891 - The railway line on the route Ljubljana - Kamnik is built.
  • 1891 - The railway line on the route Celje - Velenje is built.
  • 1894 - First public power station in Škofja Loka is built.
  • 1894 - The railway line on the route Ljubljana - Novo mesto is built.
  • 1895 - People's loan bank (Ljudska posojilnica) is founded by Catholic middle class.
  • 1895 - Ljubljana is devastated by earthquake.
  • 1896 - The National hall (Narodni dom) is built in Celje.
  • 1898 - The railway line on the route Ljubljana - Kočevje is built.
  • 1899 - The railway line on the route Velenje - Dravograd is built.

1900s

  • 1900 - Liberal middle class founds the first Slovene bank, The Credit bank of Ljubljana (Ljubljanska kreditna banka).
  • 1902 - First telephone is mounted in Celje.
  • 1907 - Electricity is used in a lead mine in Mežica.
  • 1907 - The Celje hall (Celjski dom) is built in Celje.
  • 1908 - The "Karavanke railway" is built.

1910s

1920s

  • 1920 June 4 - The Treaty of Trianon with Hungary Burgenland (Gradiščansko) falls to Austria and Transmuraland (Prekmurje) to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
  • 1920 July 13 - Croatian National hall in Pula and Slovene national hall in Trieste are burried by Italian fascists.
  • 1920 August 14 - A security agreement is signed between Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
  • 1920 October 10 - Carinthian Plebiscite.
  • 1920 November 12 - The Treaty of Rapallo between Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, where Slovenia loses almost the whole province of Primorska, which is incorporated back again after the 2nd World War. Italy also gets the whole Istria together with the Trieste region (Tržaško).
  • 1920 - The "Kulturbund" - a cultural and educational organization of German national minority is established. Later becomes the nazi organization, which operates in Yugoslavia as a fifth column.
  • 1921 June 28 - St. Vitus Day Constitution (Vidovdanska ustava) is adopted. It legalizes a monarchal regulation and centralism in a new state and also the supremacy of the court and the Serb politics linked with it.
  • 1921 July - An allied treaty for insurance of a situation in East Europe, attained in the Paris Peace Conference, is made by Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. This alliance supplements the security agreement between Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and gets the name "Small entente".
  • 1922 - Julian March (Julijska krajina) is incorporated to Italy.
  • 1923 March - Prefect of Julian March interdicts Slovene and Croatian language at the administration.
  • 1925 October 15 - Italian king issues a decree, which interdicts Slovene and Croatian language also at courts of justice.
  • 1927 - Founding of the TIGR at Goriško, Slovene anti-fascist organisation, first such European organization and a secret youth organization Borba (The fight) at the Trieste region.
  • 1929 January 6 - The king Alexander I. with a coup d'état dissolves the parliament and establishes the January 6th Dictatorship. He abolishes the St. Vitus Day constitution, freedom of the press and the pooling rights.
  • 1929 October 3 - The king Alexander I renames the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. All political parties are prohibited.

1930s

  • 1930 - Italian fascists discover some TIGR's cells and five members of TIGR (other sources of Borba) are killed at Bazovica.
  • 1931 May 9 - To hide a dictatorship the king Alexander I. initiates the bestowal constitution, which introduces the two-chamber parliament.
  • 1933 February 16 - The "Small entente" between Romania, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia.
  • 1934 February 9 - The "Balkan entente" between Romania, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey.
  • 1934 October 9- The king Alexander I. Karadžordžević, who reigned since 1921, is assassinated in Marseille together with a French foreign minister Louis Barthou by Croatian extremist nationalists.
  • 1935 - Prime minister becomes Milan Stojadinović. His government begins to drop a traditional leaning toward France and starts to connect economically and politically with Germany and Italy.
  • 1937 - The National Academy of Sciences and Arts is established in Ljubljana.
  • 1938 March 13 - Adolf Hitler annexes Austria to the German Third Reich. Slovenes in Austrian Carinthia practically become German citizens.
  • 1938 - Some members of TIGR plan an attempt on Mussolini's life, when he visits Kobarid.
  • 1938 December - Prime minister becomes Dragiša Cvetković. He signs an agreement with the leader of Croatian opposition Vlatko Maček about the foundation of Croatian banovina as the sole autonomous political and territorial unit in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. This agreement does not solve the national problem since it just distributes the authority among Serbs and Croats.

1940s

Flag of SR Slovenia
  • 1941 April 6 - German, Italian and Hungarian occupying forces occupy Slovenia and divide it into three parts. One of the darkest times of the Slovene history begins.
  • 1941 April 11 - German army occupies the Zasavje districts, where important pits, heavy industry and traffic crossroads lie.
  • 1941 April 17 - Royal Yugoslav army signs its surrender in Belgrade.
  • 1941 April 19 - A Nazi politician and SS chief leader Heinrich Himmler visits Celje and among other he inspects the prison of the Stari pisker ("Old pot").
  • 1941 April 26 - An anti-fascist organization, the Liberation Front of Slovene nation (Osvobodilna fronta Slovenskega ljudstva) (OF) is established in Ljubljana. It is active on all Slovene ethnical territory, as well in Carinthia, Primorska region in the Venetian province and Slovene Raba region (Slovene Slovensko Porabje, Hungarian Szlovén-vidék or Rába-vidék).
  • 1941 May 8 - A decision about the organization of the OF in the Zasavje districts in Trbovlje, Zagorje and Hrastnik is adopted.
  • 1941 July - Armed resistance begins.
  • 1941 August 1 - The first Slovene partisan unit in the Zasavje distrincts, the Revirje company (Revirska četa) is established at the Čemšeniška Alpine meadow. 70 fighters were counted.
  • 1941 December 12 - A battle between German policemen and Slovene partisans near the village of Rovte.
  • 1943 March 1 - Dolomite declaration.
  • 1943 September 16 - The supreme plenum of OF proclaims the association of Slovene maritime province (Slovensko primorje) to Slovenia.
    The territory of present day Slovenia
    Enlarge
    The territory of present day Slovenia
  • 1943 November 29 - Second session of AVNOJ in Jajce.
  • 1945 May 2 - Troops of Yugoslav 4th Army together with Slovene 9th Corpus NOV liberate Trieste.
  • 1945 May 5 - First postwar Slovene national government is named and elected by the SNOS (Slovene National Liberation Council) at the Bratina Hall in Ajdovščina.
  • 1945 May 8 - British 8th Army together with Slovene partisan troops and motorized detachment of Yugoslav 4th Army arrives to Carinthia and Klagenfurt.
  • 1945 May 9 - General Alexander Löhr Commander of German Army Group E near Topolšica, Slovenia signs unconditional capitulation of German occupation troops. World War II in Slovenia ends.
  • 1945 June 12 - Trieste stops being under the administration of Yugoslav army.
  • 1947 February 10 - 21 countries sign the Paris peace conference with Italy.
  • 1947 September 15 - Free Territory of Trieste (STO - Svobodno tržaško ozemlje) is established in Ljubljana.
  • 1948 March 18 - Soviet Union calls back all its specialists from Yugoslavia. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union accuses the Communist Party of Yugoslavia of not being democratic, that it leans toward imperial powers, that returns back to capitalism, and that it diverts from Marxism. The Informbiro begins. Economic blockade and a threat of military intervention follow.

1950s

1960s

1970s

  • 1978 - The "South railway" is electrified.

1980s

1990s

Flag of Slovenia

2000s

Missing image
European_flag.png
Flag of European Union

See also

Notes

1 See also Talk:Moravia and Subject page Moravia. (Temporary but interesting)
2 Some modern sources imply that Veneti and Etruscans were highly connected and it is not known yet which nation influenced on each other.
3 The discovery of an expert Catalan archaeologist Pere Bosch-Gimpera.
4 See English translation of Charles C. Mierow: http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/%7Evandersp/Courses/texts/jordgeti.html

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