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Timeline of Ancient Greece

From Academic Kids

This is a Timeline of Ancient Greece.

BC

Dating up to the Late Archaic Period mostly based on Diodorus Siculus and Jerome's Chronicon. Description of events mostly taken from Pausanias and Herodotus.

Contents

1 See also

Mythical Chronology of Greece

1800-1103 
See separate page on Mythical Chronology of Greece

Iron Age - Early Archaic Period

1103 
The Dorians invade the Peloponnese. In a rigged lottery Cresphontes wins Messenia, Temenus gets Argos and Eurysthenes and Procles the sons of Aristodemus win rule of Sparta. The Ionians flee the Achaeans who flee the Dorian onslaught and seek refugee in Athens. Synoikismos of Athens, people of Attica were willing to transfer their allegiance to one city, Athens, because of Theseus
1092 
Codrus succeeds Melanthus as king of Athens. The Pelasgians are expelled from Athens and flee to Lemnos where they expel the Minyae. These Minyae help Theras colonise the island named after him.
1071 
Medon succeeds Codrus at Athens and creates the archonship. The Athenians found colonies with the Ionians in Caria and other parts of Asia led by Neileus the son of Codrus and Philistus the son of Pasicles.
1064 
In Messenia Cresphontes is murdered and the sons of Aristodemus help his youngest son Aeyptus win back the throne
1061 
Patreus the son of Preugenes founds city of Patrae in Achaea.
1052 
Gras the son of Echelas son of Penthilus son of Orestes occupies Aeolis.
1030 
The Spartan king Echestratus removes all the Cynurians of military age, alleging as a reason that freebooters from the Cynurian territory were harrying Argolis.
995 
Labotas becomes king of Sparta
979 
Spartans make war against the Argives for annexing the Cynurian territory which the Spartans had captured, and causing revolts among their subjects the Perioeci.
958-883 
Peace in Sparta.
940 
Homer writes his poems. (middle date given by Tatian)
c.900 
The Athenian navy is defeated by the Aegentans who then begin trading with Arcadia. (estimate based on reading of Herodotus and Pausanias, could be +/-100 years out)
883 
Charillus is made a ward of Lycurgus.
880 
Lycurgus collects together the works of Homer.
865 
Charillus devastates the land of the Argives and helps Archelaus to destroy Aegys then campaigns against Tegea in vain.
860 
Eumelus writes the history of Corinth.
825 
Teleclese conquers and reduces Amyclae, Pharis, and Geranthrae, cities of the Perioeciis
800 
Hesiod is murdered. (based on the date given by Herodotus, and the middle date givne by Jerome)
785 
The Spartan king Teleclese is murdered by the Messenians in the sanctuary of Artemis.

Mid Archaic Period

776 
The Olympics is revived at Elis in the 10th year of Theopompus king of Sparta.
762 
The provocation for the first Messenian war occurs when Euaephnus murders the son of Polychares in a dispute over stolen cattle and Polychares takes revenge on the Spartans.
758 
Androcles is murdered and Antiochus rules Messenia alone but soon dies and his son Euphaes is king. The Spartans attack Ampheia. The first Messenian war starts. (date disputed by Jerome, Pausanias and Diodorus, this estimae is based on a reading of Diodorus Spartan king lists and Pausanias description of the war)
757 
Office of Archon reduced to 10 years. Members of the rulling family to hold the office starting with Charops. (dating based on Pausanias)
754 
Polydorus becomes king of Sparta.
738 
The first Messenian war ends. (see above comment)
735 
Perdikkas flees from Argos to Macedonia and conquers the land.
734 
Polydorus sends colonists to Italy.
727-717 
Hippomenes archon of Athens kills his daughters adulterer by yoking him up to his chariot and then locks his daughter up with a horse until she dies. (Pausanias and Aristotle)
719 
Polydorus the king of Sparta is murdered by Polymarchus.
716 
The reign of the Heraklids over Lydia is ended when Candaules known as Myrsilus to the Greeks is murdered by Gyges because of his wife’s anger.
690 
Phidon becomes tyrant of Argos
687 
Annual office of Archon established. Any Athenian citizen can be elected to office if they meet the requirements. Creon elected first annual archon. (dating based on Pausanias)
685 
The second Messenian war begins
665 
The second Messenian war ends
656 
Cypsilus subjects Corinth to tyranny
645-560 
Spartan wars with Tegea all unsuccessful
642 or 634 
Battus establishes a Greek colony in Cyrene in Lybia
632 
Cylon, Athenian noble, seizes Acropolis and tries to make himself king, fails
621 
Draco, Athenian lawgiver, issues code of laws where everything is punishable by death – Draconian
594 
Solon, Athenian statesman, becomes Archon, captures Salamis from Megarians, establishes Timocracy, rule by the richest, constitutional reforms, more vote and trade, abolishes slavery, Know Thyself
590 
Sappho, Greek poetess and priestess, flourishes on island of Lesbos
565 
Pisistratus, Athenian general, organizes Diakrioi, party of poor people

Late Archaic Period

561 
Pisistratus takes power in Athens for first time,
555 
Pisistratus driven out by Lycurgus who leads nobles
549 
Pisistratus restored by help of Megacles
546 
Croesus, rich king of Lydia, killed at Sardis by Persians
542 
Pisistratus expelled, makes fortune from Thracian mines
532 
Pisistratus restored by Thessaly and Lygdamos of Naxos
527 
Pisistratus dies, succeeded by sons Hippias and Hipparchus
525 
Persian Darius I, son-in-law of Cyrus the Great takes Egypt
515 
Hippias becomes sole ruler afther the death of Hipparchus
511 
Hippias is killed
507 
Cleisthenes, Greek reformer, takes power, increases democracy
490 
Themistocles and Miltiades, Athenians, defeat Darius at Marathon, Phidippides runs with news
484 
Aeschylus, Athenian playwright, wins Athenian Prize

Classical Period

480 
Leonidas, Spartan, makes sacrifice of 300 Spartans at the Battle of Thermopylae so main force can escape, Xerxes son of Darius is leading the Persians
480 
Simultaenous with Thermopylae, the Greeks and Persians fight to a draw in the naval Battle of Artemisium
480 
Battle of Salamis - Themistocles, Athenian general, lures Persians into Bay of Salamis, Xerxes loses and goes home, leaves behind Mardonius
479 
Pausanias, Greek general routs Mardonius at the Battle of Plataea
479 
Battle of Mycale frees Greek colonies in Asia. After the Battle of Salamis, Athens set up the Delian League, treasury on island of Delos, a confederacy of cities around the Aegean. It was intended as a military defense association against Persia but was turned into an empire, collecting tribute and deciding policy of its associates. Sparta formed rival Peloponnesian League
476-462 
Cimon elected general each year, he was victorious over Persia and then enforced military power on Delian League
474 
Pindar, Greek poet moves to Thebes from court at Syracuse
471 
Themistocles ostracized
468 
Sophocles, Greek playwright, defeats Aeschylus for Athenian Prize
461 
Cimon ostracized
457 
Pericles, Athenian statesman begins Golden Age, he was taught by Anaxagoras, who believed in dualistic Universe and atoms
456 
Aeschylus dies
449 
Herodotus, Greek Historian, writes History of Greco-Persian War from 490-479
448 
Ictinus and Callicrates, Greek architects rebuild Acropolis from Persain destruction
441 
Euripides, Greek playwright, wins Athenian prize
440 
Heraclitus, Greek philosopher, believes everything is mutable
435 
Phidias, Greek sculptor, completes Zeus at Elis 1 of 7 wonders
433 
Corinth, Sparta, Megara and Aegina ally against Corfu, Athens, Rhegium, and Leontini
432 
End of Golden Age, Peloponnesian Wars begin Athens under Pericles blockades Potidaea (Battle of Potidaea), Corfu declares war on Corinth (Battle of Sybota)
431 
Sparta led by Archidamus II sets out to destroy Athens thus starting the Peloponnesian War
431 
Empedocles, Greek doctor, believes body has 4 humors
430 
Failed peace mission by Athens, bubonic plague year, Sparta takes no prisoners
430 
Leucippus, Greek philosopher, believes every natural event has natural cause. Athenian Plague Appears in Athens.
429 
Phormio, Atheinian admiral, wins the Battle of Chalcis
429 
Pericles dies of Athenian Plague, possibly typhus or bubonic plague
429 
Hippocrates, Greek doctor, believes diseases have physical cause
428 
Mitylene rebels, chief city of Lesbos
427 
Archidamus II dies, Alcidas, Greek admiral sent to help Lesbos, raids Ionia and flees after seeing Athenian might Athenian Plague returns
427 
Mitylene surrenders to Athens, Plataeans surrender to Athens
427 
Aristophanes, Greek playwright, wins Athenian Prize
426 
Corfu secures island for Athens
426 
Demosthenes, Athenian general, and Cleon, Athenian demagogue, revitalizes Athenian forces, makes bold plans opposed by Nicias, his first military campaign barely succeeds
425 
Athenian fleet bottles up Spartan navy at Navarino Bay, Nicias resigns
424 
Syracuse sends Athenians home
424 
Pagondas of Thebes crushes Athenian army at the Battle of Delium, Brasidas a Spartan general makes a successful campaign, Cleon exiles Thucydides for 20 years for arriving late
423 
Truce of Laches supposed to stop Brasidas but doesn't, Nicias leads Athenian forces in retaking Mende
422 
Cleon meets Brasidas outside of Amphipolis, both are killed (Battle of Amphipolis)
421 
Peace of Nicias brings temporary end to war, but Alcibiades, a nephew of Pericles, makes anti-Sparta alliance
420 
Quadruple alliance of Athens, Argos, Mantinea, and Elis confronts Spartan-Boeotian alliance
419 
King Agis, ruler of Sparta, attacks Argos, makes treaty
418 
Battle of Mantinea, greatest land battle of war, gives Sparta victory over Argos, which broke treaty, Alcibiades thrown out, alliance broken
416 
Alcibiades makes plans, is restored to power
415 
Hermai are mutilated in Athens, Alcibiades accused, asks for inquiry, told to set sail for battle (Sicilian Expedition), is condemned to death in absentia, he defects to Sparta
414 
Lemachus, Athenian commander killed at Syracuse
413 
Nicias and Demosthenes killed at Syracuse
412 
Alcibiades is thrown out of Sparta, conspires to come back to Athens
411 
Democracy ends in Athens by Antiphon, Peisander, and Phrynichus, overthrown by Theramenes, Constitution of the 5000, Athenian navy recalls Alcibiades, confirmed by Athenians
410 
After several successes, Athenian demagogue Cleophon rejects Sparta peace overtures
409 
Byzantium recaptured by Alcibiades for Athens
408 
Alcibiades reenters Athens in triumph, Lysander, a Spartan commander, builds fleet at Ephesus
407 
Lysander begins destruction of Athenian fleet, Alcibiades stripped of power
406 
Callicratides, Spartan naval leader, loses Battle of Arginusae over blockade of Mitylene harbor, Sparta sues for peace, rejected by Cleophon
405 
Lysander captures Athenian fleet, Spartan king Pausanius lays siege to Athens, Cleophon executed, Corinth and Thebes demand destruction of Athens
404 
Athens capitulates Apr 25 Theramenes secures terms, prevents total destruction of Athens, Theramenes and Alcibiades are killed
401 
Thucydides, Greek historian, leaves account of Golden Age and Peloponnesian War at his death (History of the Peloponnesian War)
399 
Socrates, Greek philosopher, condemned to death for corrupting youth
347 
Plato, Greek philosopher, founds Academy
342 
Aristotle, Greek philosopher, begins teaching Alexander, son of Philip of Macedon
338 
Philip of Macedon defeats Athens and Thebes in last struggle for Greek Independence at Chaeronea Aug 2

Hellenistic Period

336 
Alexander succeeds father, who was assassinated at the wedding feast of his daughter
333 
Alexander defeats Persians at Battle of Issus, Oct, but Darius III escapes
332 
Alexander conquers Egypt
331 
at Battle of Gaugamela Oct 1, Alexander ends Achaemenid Dynasty and takes Persian Empire
330 
Democritus, Greek philosopher, develops Atomic theory, believes cause and necessity, nothing comes out of nothing
329 
Alexander conquers Samarkand
327 
Alexander invades Northern India, but army is tired so doesn't pursue it
323 
Alexander dies, his generals vie for power in Wars of the Diadochi Antigonus- Macedonia, Antipater- Macedonia, Seleucus- Babylonia and Syria, Ptolemy- Egypt, Eumenes- Macedonia, Lysimachus, later Antipaters son Cassander also vies for power
316 
Menander, Greek playwright, wins Athenian prize
300 
Euclid, Greek mathematician, publishes Elements, treating both geometry and number theory (see also Euclidean algorithm)
295 
Athens falls to Demetrius, Lachares killed
265 
Archimedes, Greek mathematician, develops screw, specific gravity, center of gravity; anticipates discoveries of integral calculus

See also

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