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Tallinn

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Tallinn
Missing image
TallinnCoatOfArms.png
Coat of Arms

Data
County Harju
Area 158 km
Population 400,000 (12.08.2004)
Population Density 2530 per square km
Altitude 44 m above sea level
Location Template:Coor dm
Postal Code 15080 (City Centre)
City Council Vana-Viru 12
15080 Tallinn
Homepage http://www.tallinn.ee
E-mail infopunkt@tallinnlv.ee (mailto:infopunkt@tallinnlv.ee)
Politics
Mayor Tnis Palts [1] (http://www.tallinn.ee/est/linna_juhtimine/linnavalitsus/linnavalitsuse_liikmed/tonis_palts)
Map of Estonia

Tallinn in Estonia


The city of Tallinn is the capital city and main seaport of Estonia. It is located on Estonia's north coast to the Baltic Sea, 80 kilometres south of Helsinki.

Contents

Name "Tallinn"

Other historical names are Koluvan (Kolvan, Kolyvan), Lindanise, Lindanisa (Lindans), and - as variations of "Reval" - Revalia, Revel and Reveln. The origin of the name "Tallinn" is debated, but it is certainly of Estonian origin; while it is usually thought to be derived from "Taani-linn" (meaning "Danish town"), it may also have come from "talu linn" (meaning "farming town"). The name Tallinn became official in 1918, when Estonia became independent. Previously the name Reval was used instead.

History

The southern coast of the Gulf of Finland was settled by Finno-Ugric tribes by about the middle of 2nd millennium BC.

In 1154 the city was marked on the world map of Arabian cartographer Al_Idrisi. As an important port for trade between Russia and Scandinavia it became a target for the expansion of the Kingdom of Denmark, who ruled the region from 1219 to 1346. During this period Christianity was finally accepted by the local population. In 1285 the city became the northernmost member of the Hanseastic League - a mercantile and military alliance of cities in Northern Europe and the Baltic. The Danes sold their land to the Livonian Brothers of the Sword. Medieval Tallinn enjoyed a strategic position at the crossroads for trade between Western and Northern Europe and Russia. The city, with a population of 8 000, was very well fortified with city walls and 66 defence towers.

With the start of the reformation the German influence became even stronger and it lasted until 1561 when the Swedish king Erik XIV conquered Tallinn.

During the Great Northern War Tallinn capitulated to Russia and kept cultural and economical autonomy within Tsarist Russia. The 19th century brought industrialization of the city and the port kept its importance. During the second half of the century Russification became stronger.

In February 1918 a new independent Estonian republic was born and Tallinn became its capital. During World War II Estonia was first occupied by Soviets in 1940-41, then by Nazi Germany in 1941-1944. From 1944 to 1991 Tallinn was capital of the Estonian SSR.

In August 1991 an independent democratic Estonian state was re-established and a period of quick development to a modern European capital ensued.

Tallinn has historically consisted of three parts:

  • the "Cathedral Hill", which was the seat of the central authority, first the ruling Bishops, then the Order, then the Baltic nobility; it is today the seat of the Estonian government and many embassies and residencies.
  • the Old Town, which is the old Hanseatic town, the "city of the citizens" - this was not administratively united with the Hill until the late 19th century. It was the center of the medieval salt trade on which it grew prosperous.
  • the Estonian town forms a crescent to the south of the Old Town, where the Estonians came to settle. It was not until the mid to late 19th century that Estonians formed the majority of the citizens of Tallinn)

Historically, the city has been attacked, sacked, razed and pillaged on numerous occasions. Although extensively bombed during the latter stages of World War II, much of the medieval old town still retains its charm. Tallinn Old Town became a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage site in 1997.

At the end of the 15th century a new 159 meter high Gothic tower was built for Saint Olaf's Church. This was then one of the highest towers in Europe and possibly the highest building in the world. After rebuilding, following a fire, the tower is 123 meters high.

In addition to the native Estonian language (which is of the Finno-Ugric group, closely related to the Finnish language), both Russian and English are widely understood.

Education

Tallinn is the location of Tallinn University of Technology, as well as other institutions of higher education and science, including:

Sports

During the 1980 Summer Olympics a regatta was held in Tallinn. Many buildings like the Olympic Hotel, Post Office and Regatta Center were built for the Olympics.


Population

The population is about 500,400 (2000), registered 401,694 (march 2005).

Tallinn's old town, looking towards port.
Enlarge
Tallinn's old town, looking towards port.

Population development:
15th century: 8,000
1816: 12,000
1834: 15,300
1851: 24,000
1881: 45,900
1897: 58,800
1925: 119,800
1989: 500,000+
2000: 340,000
2005: 401,694


According to Eurostat, the statistical agency of the European Union, Tallinn is the city with the largest number of non-EU nationals: 27.8% of its population are not citizens/nationals of a European Union country.

Transport

Aircraft

Tallinn is served by an airport in close proximity to town center, located in the central town district and about 4 kilometers from town hall square. It is connected to town center with a bus line. In addition to regular airplane connections to a variety of European airports, the airline Copterline maintains an hourly helicopter service to Helsinki at 189 euros one way, advertised as the fastest capital to capital link in the world. More modestly priced advance bookings for less than 50 Euros are available. Copterline leaves from Linnahall, an event hall on the outskirts of old town.

Ground Transport

There are train connections to several cities including Tartu, Prnu, Narva, Riga, Moscow, and Saint Petersburg. Buses are also available to these destinations, as well as to various other parts of Estonia.

Tallinn is crossed by Via Baltica motorway to Poland.

Ferry

Missing image
Jul_050.jpg
Tallinn from seal

Several ferries connect Tallinn to

See Ports of the Baltic Sea

Other

Tallinn is a major shopping center for Finns, who travel across the Gulf of Finland by high speed ferry. Owing to the extremely high consumption and alcohol taxes in Finland, prices can be substantially lower than in Helsinki, inducing many Finnish shoppers to make single day trips, especially for health goods not covered by the Finnish social services (such as eyeglasses).

For the tourist

Missing image
TallinnKirche.jpg
The Russian-Orthodox Alexander Nevski Cathedral, said to have been built on purpose on the centerpoint of Estonian mythology

The old town walled town is the place to go. This contains many authentic buildings of great antiquity. These are mostly well kept or undergoing restoration. As the town is a set of ring defenses built around a hill, be prepared to hike and walk. The antique cobblestone paths are rough but have been improved with cut granite sidewalks for safe walking. The tourist will pass through narrow approaches walled in for defensive purposes. For those ones who wish to stay more than just a day there are numerous hotels, but for a home away from home try furnished apartments. They are more reasonably priced than a hotel.

Shopping

The main shopping attraction is the numerous shops carrying high quality knitwear. Prices will vary, with stalls just inside the city wall offering the best values, with a better selection of higher quality goods available in the numerous small shops around town. Some of these are located in the basements of buildings on minor streets.

Dining

For dining in the old walled town there is a medieval alehouse that serves boar, elk and bear, and their own home-brewed honey ale, under authentic conditions - the only artificial light is candlelight. Many, however, feel that there is a Disneyesque, kitsch feeling about "ye olde Hansa" restaurants. The quality of restaurants varies, but superb fine dining on the European level - with prices in the range of US$ 100 for a complete menu - includes the 1930s-style Gloria (http://www.gloria.ee/), the French-Estonian Bonaparte (http://www.bonaparte.ee/Viewer/page1.html), and the hip and chique Pegasus (http://www.restoranpegasus.ee/) that is also famous for its stand-up urinals in the Ladies Room.

Sites

The view of Tallinn in 2002.
Enlarge
The view of Tallinn in 2002.

A walking trip through old town past the City Hall and up the Toompea hill past several churches will lead to the seat of the Estonian government, high atop Tallinn's central hill. Around the hill are views of both the old town within the walls and the modern urban area.

Geography

Tallinn is situated on southern coast of Gulf of Finland, in north central Estonia.

The largest lake in Tallinn is Lake lemiste (covers 9,6 km). It is the main source of the city's drinking water. Lake Harku is the second lake within the borders of Tallinn and its area is 1,6 km. Unlike many of the large towns, the only larger river in Tallinn is located in Pirita (city district counted as a suburb). The river valley is a protected area because of its natural beauty.

A limestone cliff runs through the city. It is exposed, for instance, at Toompea and Lasname. However, Toompea is not a part of the cliff, but a separate hill.

The highest point of Tallinn which is 64 meters above the sea level, is situated in the district of Nmme, in the south-western part of the city.

The length of the coastline is 46 kilometers. It comprises 3 bigger peninsulas: Kopli peninsula, Paljassaare peninsula and Kakume peninsula Template:Sect-num-stub

See also

External links

Template:Commons

Template:Harjumaaar:تالين bg:Талин be:Талін ca:Tallinn cz:Tallinn da:Tallinn de:Tallinn et:Tallinn es:Talin eo:Talino fr:Tallinn fy:Tallin ko:탈린 io:Tallinn it:Tallinn he:טאלין la:Revalia lv:Tallina lt:Talinas nl:Tallinn ja:タリン pl:Tallin pt:Tallinn ro:Talin ru:Таллин uk:Таллін tr:Tallinn fi:Tallinna sv:Tallinn tt:Tallinn zh:塔林

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