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Senj

From Academic Kids

Senj (Latin: Senia; Italian: Segna; Hungarian: Zengg) is a city in the Lika-Senj county of Croatia, population 8,132 (2001).

Senj is located on the Adriatic coast below the Vratnik mountain pass which separates the Velebit mountain from the mountains of Gorski Kotar. Due to its geographic position, the strong northeastern wind bura is a very common occurrence in Senj.

History

The place was inhabited since the prehistoric times. A settlement called Attienities in today's Senj was mentioned in Greek documents dated 4th century BC. The Romans used Senia as a stronghold against the Illyrians in the 2nd century BC, and it was a thriving town in their province of Dalmatia. The Avars and the Croats settled Senj in the 7th century (AD).

The Senj Catholic diocese was established in 1169. Croatian-Hungarian king Bela III gave the town to the Templars in 1184, and in 1271 it became the property of the counts of Krk, the Frankopans.

In 1248 the bishop of Senj was allowed by the Pope Innocent IV to use the Glagolitic alphabet and the vernacular language in liturgy. A Glagolitic printing press was set up in 1494, and produced the incunabula "The Glagolic Missal" and "Spovid općena".

The military captaincy of Senj was established in 1469 in order to defend from the invading Ottoman and Venetian armies, and the town sheltered thousands of refugees from the nearby occupied areas. The Nehaj fortress was completed on a hill near the town in 1558. The wars with the Ottomans lasted well into the 17th century and Senj spawned many a uskok or uskoci, small units of men rowing swift boats, very efficient guerilla forces.

The 18th century brought some prosperity, especially with the construction of the so-called "Josephine road" from Karlovac to Rijeka via Senj. The railway line built in 1873 didn't go past Senj, however, and this deterred its further development.

Modern Senj is a seaside tourist resort inhabited by many sailors and sea captains.

External link

  • Senj (http://www.senj.hr/)

Template:Croatia-geo-stubhr:Senj hu:Zengg ja:セーニ

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