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Romanesque architecture

From Academic Kids

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Romanesque St. Michaelis Cathedral (1010-33) in Hildesheim – a World Heritage Site

The name Romanesque, like many other stylistic designations, was not a term contemporary with the art it describes but an invention of modern scholarship to categorize a period. The term "Romanesque" attempts to link the architecture, especially, of the 11th and 12th centuries in medieval Europe to Roman Architecture based on similarities of forms and materials. Romanesque is characterized by a use of round or slightly pointed arches, barrel vaults, cruciform piers supporting vaults, and groin vaults. The great carved portals of 12th century church facades parallel the architectural novelty of the period—monumental stone sculpture seems reborn in the Romanesque.

Romanesque seems to have been the first pan-European style since Roman Imperial Architecture and examples are found in every part of the continent. One important fact pointed out by the stylistic similarity of buildings across Europe is the relative mobility of medieval people. Contrary to many modern ideas of life before the Industrial Revolution, merchants, nobles, knights, artisans, and peasants crossed Europe and the Mediterranean world for business, war, and religious pilgrimages, carrying their knowledge of what buildings in different places looked like. The important pilgrimage routes to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, modern north east Spain, may have generated as well as spread some aspects of the Romanesque style.

Contents

Surviving Romanesque buildings

Listed below are examples of surviving Romanesque buildings in modern France, Germany, Spain, Ireland, Italy, England, Netherlands, Scandinavia and Central Europe.

France

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Romanesque_church_inside,_Saint-Saturnin,_Auvergne,_France.jpg
Interior of the Saint-Saturnin church
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Romanesque abbey church of Jumièges, Normandy

Germany

Spain

Mural painting of a  from the church of , , , Spain. 11th century.
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Mural painting of a war elephant from the church of San Baudelio de Berlanga, Casillas de Berlanga, Castilla-León, Spain. 11th century.

Ireland

Italy

England

In England, Romanesque architecture is often termed 'Norman architecture'.

Netherlands

  • Sint Servaas, Maastricht
  • Onze-Lieve-Vrouwe, Maastricht
  • Munsterkerk, Roermond
  • Janskerk, Utrecht
  • Pieterskerk, Utrecht
  • St. Plechelmus, Oldenzaal
  • Chapel, Lemiers
  • Reformed church, Oirschot

Belgium

Scandinavia

Central Europe

See also

External links

da:Romansk stil de:Romanik es:Arte románico eo:Romaniko fr:Architecture romane he:רומנסק ja:ロマネスク建築 nl:Romaanse stijl pl:Architektura romańska pt:Estilo românico sv:Romansk arkitektur

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