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Rhodes Scholarship

From Academic Kids

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Rhodes House in Oxford

The Rhodes Scholarships were created by Englishman Cecil John Rhodes. They have been awarded to applicants annually since 1902 by the Oxford-based Rhodes Trust, on the basis of academic qualities as well as those of character. They provide the successful candidate with two years of study at the University of Oxford in England, possibly extended for a third year.

When Rhodes died in 1902, his will stipulated that the greater part of his fortune was to go towards the establishment of a scholarship fund. The scholarships, originally worth £300, would reward those applicants who exhibited worthy qualities of intellect, character, and physical ability.

Contents

Standards

The requirements for applicants are high. Rhodes' will specified four standards by which applicants were to be judged:

  • literary and scholastic attainments;
  • energy to use one's talents to the full, as exemplified by fondness for and success in sports;
  • truth, courage, devotion to duty, sympathy for and protection of the weak, kindliness, unselfishness and fellowship;
  • moral force of character and instincts to lead, and to take an interest in one's fellow beings.

Rhodes' will originally provided for scholarships for the British colonies, the United States, and Germany. These three were chosen so that "an understanding between the three great powers will render war impossible."

Rhodes, who attended Oxford, chose his alma mater as the site of his great experiment because he believed its residential colleges provided the ideal environment for intellectual contemplation and personal development.

Changes

The program has evolved over its century of existence.

There has been some controversy over the original aim of the scholarships, as Rhodes held what many believe today to be racist opinions about the superiority of the Anglo race over all others, and his intention was to use the scholarships to educate future foreign leaders in England so that they could help spread English influence when they returned to their home countries. However, it is generally felt that the Rhodes Trust has since rejected the racist parts of Rhodes's original ideals.

An early change was the elimination of the scholarships for Germany during World Wars I and II. No German scholars were chosen from 1914 to 1932 nor from 1939 to 1970.

The bequest of Cecil Rhodes was whittled down considerably in the first decades after his death, as various scholarship trustees were forced to pay taxes upon their own deaths. A change occurred in 1929, when an Act of Parliament established a fund separate from the original proceeds of Cecil Rhodes's will. This made it possible for an expansion to the number of scholarships. For example, between 1993 and 1995, scholarships were extended to other countries in the European Community.

Because the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 in the UK did not affect wills, it took another Act of Parliament to change the will of Cecil Rhodes to extend selection criteria in 1977 to include women.

For at least its first 75 years, scholars usually read for a Bachelor of Arts degree. While that remains an option, more recent scholars usually read for an advanced degree.

Allocations

Approximately 90 Scholars are selected worldwide each year.

Country2005
allocation
1903
allocation
USA3232
Canada112
Newfoundland11
South Africa
(originally Southern Africa)
105
Australia116
India6-
Germany45
New Zealand31
Caribbean Commonwealth2-
Kenya2-
Pakistan2-
Zimbabwe
(originally Rhodesia)
23
Bangladesh1-
Bermuda11
Hong Kong1-
Jamaica11
Malaysia1-
Singapore1-
Uganda1-
Zambia1-

Notable Rhodes Scholarship recipients

before 1920

1920s

1930s

1940s

1950s

1960s

1970s

1980s


1990s

Undated

Centenary degrees

In recognition of the centenary of the foundation of the Rhodes Trust in 2003, four scholars were awarded honorary degrees to Oxford:

  • John Brademas (Indiana and Brasenose, 1950), former U.S. Member of Congress, Indiana
  • Bob Hawke (Western Australia and University, 1953), former Prime Minister of Australia
  • Rex Nettleford (1957), pro-vice-chancellor of the University of the West Indies, author, dance director
  • David R. Woods (Natal and University, 1963), vice-chancellor at Rhodes University

Notable Universities

The universities of Harvard, Yale and Princeton hold the top three spots, respectively, in terms of largest number of U.S. Rhodes Scholarships won by their graduates. In the election of November 2004 (for the class matriculating in 2005), the number of students selected from Harvard, Yale and Princeton to be Rhodes scholars were 5, 2, and 0, respectively.

University of Toronto leads among Canadian institutions in the overall number of Rhodes recipients.


U.S. Institutions With the Most Rhodes Scholars (1947-2005)
1947-1998 1999-2003 2004-2005 Totals (rough)
Harvard 4.7 2.8 4.5 267
Yale 2.9 1.8 1.5 163
Princeton 2.3 1.0 0.5 125
West Point 1.1 2.0 1.5 70
Stanford 1.1 0.8 1.5 64
Dartmouth 0.7 0.3 0 38
Air Force Academy 0.6 0.2 0.5 33
Naval Academy 0.5 0.2 1.5 30
University of Chicago 0.4 1.0 1.0 28
Duke 0.4 1.3 0.5 28
MIT 0.4 0.8 1.0 27

Adapted from the New York Times

Former Trustees

External links

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