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Raymond Poincaré, President of the French Republic during the Great War.
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Raymond Poincaré, President of the French Republic during the Great War.

Raymond Poincaré (August 20, 1860 - October 15, 1934) was a French statesman who served as Prime Minister of France on five separate occasions and as President of France from 1913 to 1920.

Born in Bar-le-duc, Lorraine, France, the son of Nicolas Antoinin Hélène Poincaré, a distinguished civil servant and meteorologist. Educated at the university of Paris, Raymond was called to the Paris bar, and was for some time law editor of the Voltaire. He had served for over a year in the department of agriculture when in 1887 he was elected deputy for the Meuse. He made a great reputation in the Chamber as an economist, and sat on the budget commissions of 18901891 and 1892. He was minister of education, fine arts and religion in the first cabinet (April – November 1893) of Charles Dupuy, and minister of finance in the second and third (May 1894 – January 1895).

In Alexandre Ribot's cabinet Poincaré became minister of public instruction. Although he was excluded from the Radical cabinet which followed, the revised scheme of death duties proposed by the new ministry was based upon his proposals of the previous year. He became vice-president of the chamber in the autumn of 1895, and in spite of the bitter hostility of the Radicals retained his position in 1896 and 1897. In 1906 he returned to the ministry of finance in the short-lived Sarrien ministry. Poincaré had retained his practice at the bar during his political career, and he published several volumes of essays on literary and political subjects.

Poincaré became Prime Minister in January of 1912, and began to pursue a hard-line anti-German policy, noted for restoring close ties with France's Russian ally. He was elected President of the Republic in 1913, in succession to Armand Fallières and attempted to make that office into a site of power for the first time since MacMahon in the 1870s. He generally managed to continue to dominate foreign policy, in particular, and his anti-German sentiments were blamed by some for the outbreak of the First World War. He became increasingly sidelined after the accession to power of Georges Clemenceau as Prime Minister in 1917.

In 1920, Poincaré's term as President came to an end, and two years later he returned to office as Prime Minister. Once again, his tenure was noted for its strong anti-German policies, especially the Ruhr Occupation of 19231924, which was carried out in response to the Cuno government's failure to pay reparations. Eventually, the increasing cost of the occupation led to a defeat for Poincaré's conservative coalition in the 1924 parliamentary elections, and his government fell. Financial crisis, however, brought him back to power in 1926, and he once again became Prime Minister and Finance Minister until his retirement in 1929. He died in Paris in 1934.

His brother, Lucien Poincaré (b. 1862), famous as a physicist, became inspector-general of public instruction in 1902. He is the author of La Physique moderne (1906) and L'Electricité (1907). Jules Henri Poincaré (b. 1854), also a distinguished physicist and mathematician, belonged to another branch of the same family.

Contents

Poincaré's First Ministry, 14 January 191221 January 1913

Changes

Poincaré's Second Ministry, 15 January 192229 March 1924

Changes

Poincaré's Third Ministry, 29 March9 June 1924

Poincaré's Fourth Ministry, 23 July 192611 November 1928

Changes

Poincaré's Fifth Ministry, 11 November 192829 July 1929



Template:Succession box two to two
Preceded by:
Auguste Burdeau
Minister of Finance
1894–1895
Succeeded by:
Alexandre Ribot

Template:Succession box two to one

Preceded by:
Pierre Merlou
Minister of Finance
1906
Succeeded by:
Joseph Caillaux
Preceded by:
Joseph Caillaux
Prime Minister of France
1912–1913
Succeeded by:
Aristide Briand
Preceded by:
Justin de Selves
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1912–1913
Succeeded by:
Charles Jonnart
Preceded by:
Armand Fallières
President of France
1913–1920
Succeeded by:
Paul Deschanel

Template:Succession box one to two

Preceded by:
Édouard Herriot
Prime Minister of France
1926–1929
Succeeded by:
Aristide Briand
Preceded by:
Anatole de Monzie
Minister of Finance
1926–1928
Succeeded by:
Henry de Chéron

Template:End box



Preceded by:
Émile Gebhart
Seat 34
Académie française
Succeeded by:
Jacques Bainville
de:Raymond Poincaré

fr:Raymond Poincaré it:Raymond Poincaré pl:Raymond Poincaré sv:Raymond Poincaré

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