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Racialism

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(Redirected from Racialist)

Racialism is a term used in different ways by different people. It has no widely accepted, fixed definition.

When used within white or black separatist literature, it is often intended to portray an emphasis on racial origin in social matters. "Racism" implies a presumption of racial superiority and a harmful intent, whereas separatists, as well as advocates of positive racial differences use the word "racialism" to indicate a strong interest in matters of race without the presumption of superiority or the desire to cause harm to others. Their focus rather is on racial pride, identity politics, and / or racial segregation.

Racialists often cite scientific works such as Race, Evolution and Behavior by J. Philippe Rushton', IQ and the Wealth of Nations by Dr. Richard Lynn, and The Bell Curve by R.J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray. This is often referred to by opponents as "scientific racism".

The term "racialism" is sometimes used to describe racial policy. It should be noted, however, that some sources, particularly British ones, use the terms racialism and racism interchangeably. Racialists who argue they are not racists are rarely accepted at face value by others.

Contents

History

Racialism is generally viewed as a less offensive term than racism. Before the notion of racial equality in the latter half of the 20th century, many were considered non-racist (i.e. without antipathy) racialists. This was because the scientific community tended to view intrinsic racial features as extending beyond the physical, into the mental and cultural realms.

W. E. B. DuBois

W.E.B. DuBois argues that racialism is the philosophical belief that differences between the races exist, be it biological, social, psychological, or in the realm of the "soul". He then goes on to argue that racism is using this belief to push forward the argument that one's particular race is superior to the others.

Therefore, Dubois separates the conditions of racism from racism itself. (Anthony Kwame Appiah summarizes Dubois' position in his book In my father's house, chapter 3) Racialism is a value neutral philosophy, while racism is a value charged ideology. Dubois needs to make this distinction clear, because he actually argues for the racialist "talent" of the black folk (he argued for black forms of intelligence, as expressed in the arts, dancing, singing, and so forth - a viewpoint championed in modern times by Reggie White).

Racialism as policy legally employed by nations

Prior to the 20th century, nearly all nations had strict laws promoting racial distinctions. This became increasingly unpopular, especially after the 1960s, and no nation today admits to having a racial stratification or racialist hierarchy. However, there are a wide array of race-based policies in place in nations today, but since the word racialism has negative connotations, the term used for these policies is racial rather than racialist. These include affirmative action, racial quotas and reverse discrimination. These policies are said to attempt to correct inequalities and are sometimes referred to as "positive discrimination".

See also

External links

Examples of Racialist groups

References

  • Kennedy, Paul and Nicholls Anthony (eds.) Nationalist and racialist movements in Britain and Germany before 1914 (Saint Antony's College Press, 1981).
  • Dobratz, Betty A. "White power, white pride!": The white separatist movement in the United States (Twayne Publishers, NY, 1997).
  • Snyder, Louis L. The Idea of Racialism: Meaning and History. (Princeton, NJ, 1962).
  • Stokes, Geoffrey (ed.). The Politics of Identity in Australia. See: John Kane, "Racialism and democracy" (Cambrdige University Press (http://titles.cambridge.org/catalogue.asp?isbn=052158356X), 1997).
  • Arter, David. "Black Faces in the Blond Crowd: Populist Racialism in Scandinavia", Parliamentary Affairs, July 1992, vol. 45:3, pp. 357-372.
  • Odocha O. Race and racialism in scientific research and publication in the Journal of the National Medical Association. (National Library of Medicine (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10800300&dopt=Abstract), 2000).
  • Zubaida, Sami (ed.). Race and Racialism (Tavistock, London, 1970).
  • The African National Congress and the policy of non-Racialism: A study of the membership issues (South African Journal of Political Studies (http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?wasp=lp3efmqgrgdxunuqva6q&referrer=parent&backto=issue,1,6;journal,4,9;linkingpublicationresults,1:104654,1), 2002).
  • Racial Identity, the Apartheid State, and the Limits of Political Mobilization and Democratic Reform in South Africa: The Case of the University of the Western (Teachers College, Columbia University (http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S1532706XID0301_03?), 2003).
  • Lee, Woojin and Roemer, John. Electoral Consequences of Racialism for Redistribution in the United States: 1972-1992 (California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and social Sciences (http://www.hss.caltech.edu/Events/SCW/Papers/leew.pdf)[PDF], 2002).
  • Thompson, Walter Thomas. James Anthony Froude on Nation and Empire: A Study in Victorian Racialism (Taylor & Francis, London, 1998).
  • UNESCO General Conference. Declaration of Fundamental Principles concerning the Contribution of the Mass Media to Strengthening Peace and International Understanding, to the Promotion of Human Rights and to Countering Racialism, Apartheid and Incitement to War (University of Hawaii (http://www2.hawaii.edu/~rvincent/funprin.htm), 1978).fr:racialisme
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