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President of the Philippines

From Academic Kids

The President is the head of state and of the government of the Republic of the Philippines. The president heads the Executive branch of the government, which includes the Cabinet, and is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

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According to the current constitution (1987), the President must be at least 40 years of age, a Filipino citizen by birth, and is a resident of the Philippines for the past 10 years prior to election. The Filipinos directly elect the president who wins on a plurality vote. The president serves a term of six years and may no longer run for re-election, unless he/she becomes president through constitutional succession and has served for no more than 4 years as president.

The official title of the president is the "President of the Philippines," as specified in the present Constitution of the Philippines (1987). The honorific for the President of the Philippines is "Your Excellency" or "His/Her Excellency", adopted from the title of the Governor-General of the Philippines during Spanish and American times. The term "President of the Republic of the Philippines" is commonly, but erroneously, used, dating back to when President Jose P. Laurel wanted to express the difference between his government and the previous Commonwealth government (then in exile) under President Manuel L. Quezon. The restoration of the Commonwealth in 1945 and the subsequent independence of the Philippines led to the restoration of the constitutionally-sanctioned title "President of the Philippines" until President Ferdinand E. Marcos proclaimed martial law and once more wanted to differentiate his government from those that came before. It was then that "President of the Republic of the Philippines" was adopted and indeed, specified in the 1973 Constitution of the Philippines. However, that Constitution was superseded by new ones in 1986 which restored the more tradition "President of the Philippines."

Contents

The Presidents

The Philippines has had a total of fourteen presidents. Despite the differences in constitutions and government, the line of presidents is considered to be continuous. For instance, the current president, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, is considered the 14th president. While the Philippines consider Aguinaldo to be the first president, the First Republic fell under the United States following the Philippine-American War. Manuel L. Quezon is considered to be the first president by the United States and the first to win an election.

The Philippines had two presidents at one point during WW2 heading two governments. One was Quezon heading the Commonwealth government-in-exile (considered de jure) and the other was J. P. Laurel heading the Japanese-sponsored republic (considered de facto). Laurel was instructed to remain in Manila by President Manuel Quezon. Laurel was not recognized as a Philippine president formally until the Macapagal administration. The recognition coincided with the movement of the Philippine Independence Day from July 4 to June 12. However, it must be born in mind that in the roster of presidents, it is inaccurate to consider Laurel the successor of Osmea or vice versa; Laurel's republic was formally rejected after World War II and none of its statutes or actions considered legal or binding.

Philippine Republic (18991901)

Commonwealth of the Philippines (19351946)

Second Republic (19431945)

Third Republic (19461973)

Fourth Republic (19811986)

  • Ferdinand E. Marcos : 19811986, 1986 (In 1973, a new constitution deemed to supersede 1935 Constitution; presidential rule continued however until a new term and "new republic" inaugurated in 1981; deposed)

Fifth Republic (1987–Present)

External links

Official websites

Projects

The Philippine Presidency Project (http://www.pangulo.ph/)nl:President van de Filipijnen ja:フィリピンの大統領 tl:Pangulo ng Pilipinas zh:菲律宾总统

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