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Pharyngeal consonant

From Academic Kids

Places of articulation
Labial
Bilabial
Labiodental
Linguolabial
Labial-velar
Coronal
Interdental
Dental
Retroflex
Alveolar
Postalveolar
Alveolo-palatal
Dorsal
Palatal
Labial-palatal
Velar
Uvular
Pharyngeal
Epiglottal
Glottal
Apical
Laminal
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A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx.

Pharyngeal consonants in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA):

IPA Description Example
Language Orthography IPA Meaning
Image:Xsampa-qmarkslash.png pharyngeal approximant Mishnaic Hebrew עין the letter [[Hebrew alphabet#.26.231506.3B|]]
Image:Xsampa-Xslash.png voiceless pharyngeal fricative Mishnaic Hebrew חית the letter [[Hebrew alphabet#.26.231495.3B|]]
  • Pharyngeal plosives are thought to be impossible.
  • Although traditionally placed in the fricative row of the IPA chart, is usually an approximant. The IPA symbol itself is ambiguous, but no language has a distinct fricative and approximant at this place of articulation. Sometimes the lowering diacritic is used to specify that the manner is approximant: .

Pharyngeals are known primarily from two areas of the world: in North-Africa/Mideast (in the Semitic, Berber, Cushitic, Circassian, and Dagestanian families) and in British Columbia (in the Wakashan and Salish families). There are scattered reports of pharyngeals elsewhere, such as in the Nilo-Saharan Tama language and in Nenets in Siberia.

Note that reported pharyngeals frequently turn out to be epiglottals. Such was the case for Dahalo and northern Haida, for example.

See also

de:Pharyngal fr:Consonne pharyngale ja:咽頭音 ko:인두음 sv:Faryngal

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