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People of the Book

From Academic Kids

The People of the Book or ahl al Kitāb, (Arabic: اهل الكتاب) is a term in Islam for peoples who, according to the Qur'an, have received and are in possession of the divine scriptures —referring to the Torah, the New Testament, as well as the Qur'an. The term "People of the Book" (Am HaSefer) is also used in Judaism, where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah.

In Islam, the term applies to monotheistic Abrahamic faiths older than Islam who received revelation(s) (hence "book") from God. To orthodox Muslims this includes at least all Christians, Jews (including Karaites and Samaritans), and "Sabians" (identified with Mandaeans). Many early scholars such as Imam Malik agree in also including Zoroastrians, while some have argued for extending the concept further.

Contents

The Qur'an

There are many statements in the Qur'an that promote tolerance towards People of The Book. For example:

And do not dispute with the followers of the Book except by what is best, except those of them who act unjustly, and say: We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you, and our God and your God is One, and to Him do we submit.(Qur'an 29:46)

There are also many statements that promote an adversarial relationship. For example:

O you who believe! Do not take the Jews and the Christians for friends; they are friends of each other; and whoever amongst you takes them for a friend, then surely he is one of them; surely Allah does not guide the unjust people. (Qur'an 5:51)

Throughout Islamic history, Muslims have used these verses to justify a variety of positions towards non-Muslims. In some places and times, Muslims showed a great deal of tolerance towards non-Muslims; in other places and times non-Muslims were treated as enemies and persecuted. Islamic law demands that Muslims treat Jews and Christians as dhimmis, second-class protected citizens who have a limited number of rights.

Similarities in belief

The various faiths of the People of the Book share several qualities:

Islamic law

Where non-Muslim People of the Book live in an Islamic nation under Sharia law, they become dhimmi. They are given a number of rights, such as the right to freely practice their faith in private, in return for state protection, and exemption from military service. They also have some responsibilities, such as the payment of a special tax called jizyah ("poll tax"), but exempted from Zakat which Muslims are required to pay. People of the Book living in non-Islamic nations are not considered dhimmi.

References

  • Yusuf al-Qaradawi has a book entitled "Non-Muslims in Muslim societies" detailing many issues including what a dhimmi is, jizyah, rights, responsibilities, and more.

See also

External links

nl:Mensen van het Boek

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