From Academic Kids
The word pedal comes from the Greek (Pes, Pedis) and relates to the foot.
- An automobile has usually three pedals, from left to right:
- operated by the left foot:
- operated by the right foot:
- Bicycle pedal: on a bicycle, each of two platforms at the end of the crankarms, connected such that while the crank arms rotate, the pedals can stay parallel to the shoe soles; this human powered rotation provides the propulsion, usually through a bicycle chain that makes the back wheel turn. In the case of a back pedalling brake, they are also used for applying the brake in the back wheel, again through the chain.
- Most pianos have two or three piano pedals (from left to right):
- A soft pedal which causes the hammer to hit only two strings of a note instead of three. This creates a "softer" sound.
- A sostenuto pedal (usually the one missing if the piano has only two pedals) works similar to the damper pedal except only the notes being played when the pedal is depressed are sustained.
- A damper pedal (sometimes called the sustain pedal) which causes notes to sustain after the key for that note has been released.
- Pipe and electronic organs have a variety of pedals, some of which are:
- The pedalboard, which contains approximately one dozen to three dozen pedals that resemble the keyboards (or "manuals"); when one of these pedals is depressed, it causes a note (or group of notes) to sound.
- One or more expression pedals, which effectively control the volume either of the music overall or of discrete divisions; as the organist increases pressure, the power of her music increases.
- A crescendo pedal, with which the organist progressively adds stops as she presses down more and more firmly.
- An effects pedal, which, on electronic organs, may be programmed to alter pitch or perform other functions.
- Electric pianos and synthesizers can also connect to pedals. Some electric pianos, like the Fender Rhodes, uses a mechanical pedal for sustain. Synthesizers use an electronic pedal, which can function as a sustain pedal or be programmed to perform other functions.
- Tap pedal: this is a small electronic pedal, similar or identical to the ones used with synthesizers, but is connected to audio effects equipment, a music sequencer, or drum machine. The purpose is to tap the pedal in time with the music, which allows the sequencer or drum machine to stay "in-sync". When connected to audio effects, it can be used to "tap in" the length for a digital delay or flange, or to cause an effect loop to be bypassed.
- Pedal tone: a nonchord tone, usually the tonic or dominant held for an extended period of time.
- not to be confused with a paddle.