Osmium tetroxide

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(Redirected from Osmic acid)
</table> </table> The chemical compoundosmium tetroxide (OsO4) is an oxide of the element osmium, in which it attains its highest oxidation number of 8. Osmium tetroxide sublimates at room temperature and is readily formed when powdered osmium is exposed to air. In fact it explains the name of the element, derived from a Greek word for stench. The oxide is a powerful staining agent in regular use in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to provide contrast to the image. It also stains the human cornea, which can lead to blindness if proper safety precautions are not observed. In organic synthesis it is sometimes used to oxidise alkenes to the dialcohols. One catalytic reaction with osmium tetroxide is the Sharpless bishydroxylation named after K. Barry Sharpless. Osmium tetroxide is highly poisonous, even at very low exposure levels, and must be handled with appropriate precautions. In particular, inhalation at concentrations well below those at which a smell can be perceived can lead to edema of the lungs, and subsequent death. Noticeable symptoms can take hours to appear after exposure. On the 6th April 2004 the American news organisation ABC News reported that British intelligence sources believed they had foiled a plot to detonate a bomb involving the chemical due to its poisonous properties.

External links

ga:Teatrocsad Oismiam

he:אוסמיום טטרוקסיד

Properties

General

Name Osmium tetroxide 
Chemical formula OsO4 
Appearance colourless or pale-yellow solid 

Physical

Formula weight 254.2 
Melting point 42 °C 
Boiling point 129.7 °C 
Density 4.9 × 10³ kg/m³
Crystal structure  
Solubility 6 g/100 ml water

Thermochemistry

ΔfH0gas   kJ/mol
ΔfH0liquid   kJ/mol
ΔfH0solid   kJ/mol
S0gas, 1 bar   J/mol·K
S0liquid, 1 bar   J/mol·K
S0solid   J/mol·K

Safety

Ingestion Causes nausea and abdominal pain, possibly fatal.
Inhalation Severe irritation and burning sensation with coughing and shortness of breath. Possible delayed lung edema and bronchopneumonia.
Skin Irritation and possible burns.
Eyes Tearing, pain, and burning sensation, leading to corneal staining and possible complete loss of sight.
More info Hazardous Chemical Database (http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/chemicals1/7/6864.html)

SI units were used where possible. Unless otherwise stated, standard conditions were used.

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