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Ophthalmology

From Academic Kids

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Geraet_beim_Optiker.jpg
An optical refractor in use.

Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. The word ophthalmology comes from the Greek roots ophthalmos meaning eye and logos meaning word; ophthalmology literally means "the science of eyes." As a disciple it applies to animal eyes also, since the differences from human practice are surprisingly minor and are related mainly to differences in anatomy or prevalence, not differences in disease processes. By convention the term ophthalmologist is more restricted and implies a medically trained specialist. Since ophthalmologists perform operations on eyes, they are generally categorized as surgeons.

Contents

Professional requirements

Ophthalmologists are medical doctors who have completed medical school and embark on a training schedule that generally lasts three years after medical school in most countries. Many ophthalmologists also undergo additional specialized training in one of the many subspecialities. Ophthalmology was the first branch of medicine to offer board certification, now a standard practice among all specialties.

The American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) promotes the use of the phrase "Eye MD" to distinguish ophthalmologists from optometrists. (This is however, not always the case, since a few ophthalmologists' primary medical degree is a D.O. doctor of osteopathy, rather than an M.D. In both cases, the same residency and certification requirements must be fulfilled.)

In U.K., FRCS / MRCOpth and FRCOpth (postgraduate exams) are required for specialisation in eye diseases.

In Australia and New Zealand, the FRACO/FRANZCO is the equivalent postgraduate specialist qualification. They do not generally accept outsiders with equivalent qualifications and require repeat training on case by case basis.

In India, a Junior Residency at a Medical College or Institution leading to degree of Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Master of Surgery (M.S.), or Diplomate of National Board (D.N.B.) degree, or a diploma course leading to (Diploma in Ophthalmic Medicine and Surgery (D.O.M.S.) in Ophthalmology is necessary before one can expertly deal with various problems of the eye.

In Canada, an Ophthalmology residency and FRCSC is the requirement for becoming a licenced Ophthalmologist. There are about 10 seats per year in whole of Canada for Ophthalmology residency.

Formal specialty training programs in veterinary ophthalmology now exist in some countries.

Sub-specialities

Ophthalmology includes sub-specialities which deal either with certain diseases or diseases of certain part of the eye. Some of them are:

Ophthalmic surgery

See eye surgery.

Famous ophthalmologists

  • Hermengildo Arruga (Spain)
  • Ignacio Barraquer (Spain) carried out the first intracapsular lens extraction using enzymatic zonulolysis.
  • Ramon Castroviejo (Spain) pioneer in corneal transplantation surgery.
  • Marie Fabry Colinet, wife of Wilhelm Fabry, employs a magnet for removing a foreign body from the eye, 1627.
  • Florent Cunier (Belgium) founded the world's first ophthalmologic journal, Annales d'Oculistique, 1838.
  • Jacques Daviel (Normandy) claimed to be the 'father' of modern cataract surgery in that he performed intracapsular extraction instead of needling the cataract or pushing it back into the vitreous. It is said that he carried out the technique on 206 patients in 1752-3, out of which 182 were reported to be successful. These figures are not very credible, given the total lack of both anaesthesia and aseptic technique at that time.
  • Frans Cornelis Donders (Dutch) published pioneering analyses of ocular biomechanics, intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and physiological optics. Made possible the prescribing of combinations of spherical and cylindrical lenses to treat astigmatism.
  • Sir Stewart Duke-Elder (U.K.) Author of System of Ophthalmology, an immensely influential mid-20th century multivolume compendium of ophthalmic history, embryology, comparative ophthalmology, refraction, ocular basic sciences, medical ophthalmology and therapeutics, but avoiding discussion of surgical techniques (which he viewed as ephemera).
  • Svyatoslav Fyodorov (Russia) - creator of radial keratotomy
  • Fred Hollows (New Zealand/Australia) pioneered programs in Nepal, Eritrea, and Vietnam, and among Australian aborigines, including the establishment of cheap laboratory production of intraocular lenses in Nepal and Eritrea.
  • Sir Harold Ridley (U.K.) may have been the first to successfully implant an artificial intraocular lens 1949, after observing that plastic fragments in the eyes of wartime pilots were well tolerated. He fought for decades against strong reactionary opinions to have the concept accepted as feasible and useful.
  • Charles L. Schepens, pioneer in retinal surgery, developer of the Schepens indirect binocular ophthalmoscope, founder of the Schepens Eye Research Institute.
  • Carl Ferdinand Ritter von Arlt, the elder (Austrian) proved that myopia is largely due to an excessive axial length, published influential textbooks on eye disease, and ran annual eye clinics in needy areas long before the concept of volunteer eye camps became popular. His name is still attached to some disease signs, eg, von Arlt's line in trachoma. His son Ferdinand Ritter von Arlt, the younger, was also an ophthalmologist.
  • Albrecht von Graefe (Germany) Along with Helmholtz and Donders, one of the 'founding fathers' of ophthalmology as a specialty. A brilliant clinician and charismatic teacher who had an international influence on the development of ophthalmology. A pioneer in mapping visual field defects and diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. Introduced a cataract extraction technique that remained the standard for over 100 years, and many other important surgical techniques such as iridectomy. Rationalised the use of many ophthalmically important drugs, including mydriatics & miotics. The founder of the one of the earliest ophthalmic societies (German Ophthalmological Society, 1857) and one of the earliest ophthalmic journals (Graefe's Archives of Ophthalmology). The most important ophthalmologist of the 19th century.
  • Hermann von Helmholtz, great German polymath, invented the ophthalmoscope (1851) and published important work on physiological optics, including colour vision (1850s).



Health science - Medicine
Anesthesiology - Dermatology - Emergency Medicine - General practice - Intensive care medicine - Internal medicine - Neurology - Obstetrics & Gynecology - Pediatrics - Podiatry - Public Health & Occupational Medicine - Psychiatry - Radiology - Surgery
Branches of Internal medicine
Cardiology - Endocrinology - Gastroenterology - Hematology - Infectious diseases - Nephrology - Oncology - Pulmonology - Rheumatology
Branches of Surgery
General surgery - Cardiothoracic surgery - Neurosurgery - Ophthalmology - Orthopedic surgery - Otolaryngology (ENT) - Pediatric surgery - Plastic surgery - Podiatric surgery - Urology - Vascular surgery
de:Augenheilkunde

es:Oftalmologa fr:Ophtalmologie ja:眼科学 pl:Okulistyka zh:眼科学

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