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Nottingham

From Academic Kids

This article is about the English city. For others, see Nottingham (disambiguation).
City of Nottingham
Image:EnglandNottingham.png
Geography
Status:Unitary, City (1897)
Region:East Midlands
Ceremonial County:Nottinghamshire
Area:
- Total
Ranked 274th
74.61 km²
Admin. HQ:Nottingham
Grid ref.: Template:Mmukpc prim
ONS code:00FY
Demographics
Population:
- Total (2003 est.)
- Density
Ranked 27th
273,863
3,671 / km²

Nottingham Urban Area: 613,723

Metro Area: 750,000

Ethnicity:84.9% White
6.5% S. Asian
4.3% Afro-Caribbean
Politics
Missing image
Arms-nottingham.jpg
Arms of Nottingham City Council


Nottingham City Council
http://www.nottinghamcity.gov.uk
Leadership:Leader & Cabinet
Executive:Labour
MPs:Graham Allen, John Heppell, Alan Simpson

Nottingham is a city located in Nottinghamshire, in the East Midlands of England. Nottingham lies on the River Trent, which flows from Stoke-on-Trent to the Humber—the only major English river to flow north. The geographical area of Nottingham includes several local authorities. Nottingham City Council's boundaries are tightly drawn and exclude the suburbs of Arnold, Carlton, Clifton, West Bridgford, Beeston and Stapleford, and outlying towns and villages like Hucknall, Eastwood, Ilkeston, Long Eaton, Tollerton and Ruddington, some of which are actually in Derbyshire. Main suburbs in Nottingham City include St. Anns, Bakersfield, Bulwell and Sneinton.

The 2001 census recorded a population of 270,300 in Nottingham itself, with around 613,723 people living in the surrounding conurbation (Greater Nottingham). The nearby East Midlands City of Leicester has slightly more people than the City of Nottingham, but its metropolitan area is not as big as Nottingham's.

Nottingham is famous for its involvement in lace-making, its association with the legendary outlaw Robin Hood, and the supposedly exceptional beauty of its young women. Perhaps not unrelatedly, Nottingham is also nationally famous for the high ratio of females to males, given at various times as between 3:1 to 6:1. In 2001, however, the official ratio was published as 1.015:1.

The heart of the city is the Old Market Square (the market moved in the 1920s), the largest such surviving in Europe. Most of the main shopping streets are around the square. The council house, whose dome can be seen for miles around, is at the top of the square. There are plans to redevelop (http://www.oldmarketsquare.org.uk) the square and the final design will be selected in Spring 2005, with construction to begin in the summer.

A bohemian quarter of the city known as Hockley has arisen in recent years. This is situated close to the Lace Market area.

According to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, Nottingham is one of the English regions eight "core cities".

Contents

History

Founded as a Saxon settlement, Nottingham was later captured by the Danes (Vikings) and in the 9th century became one of the five boroughs (fortified towns) of the Danelaw. From its earliest beginnings, parts of the settlement have included man-made caves, dug into soft sandstone. During this period the settlement went by various names including Tigguo Cobauc ("House of Caves") and Snottingaham (from the Anglo-Saxon for "Snot's people", Snot being a local chieftain). The populace are grateful that the S became lost in the course of history.

In the 11th century a castle was constructed on a sandstone outcrop by the River Trent and a town grew around the castle. The cave network was substantially expanded and became home to a large proportion of the poorer populace, particularly those involved in the tanning industry. The caves were gradually abandoned in the 18th and 19th centuries, but came into use again as air raid shelters during World War II. A section of the cave network under the Broadmarsh shopping centre is now open as a tourist attraction, and some parts are still used as pub cellars.

Another section of the caves, under the castle, is still in regular use as the indoor rifle range of Nottingham Rifle Club. Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem Inn, partly built into the cave system below the castle and named for its role as a major meeting point for those going on the Crusades in the Middle Ages, lays claim to being the oldest pub in Britain. However, this is due mainly to the spurious date of 1189 painted on the side of the Inn, and the building itself only dates from the 16th or 17th century; the caves themselves may date to the 11th century and could have been the site of the brewhouse for the castle. Two other Nottingham pubs—Ye Olde Salutation Inn and the Bell Inn—both lay claim to being the oldest in Nottingham. Dendrochronology dating evidence from roof timbers in the Salutation give a date for the building of c.1420 with similar dates for the Bell. The roots of the multiple claims can be traced to various subtleties of definition in terms such as "public house" and "inn."

A tram passes the Council House in Market Square
Enlarge
A tram passes the Council House in Market Square

The legend of Robin Hood first arose in the Middle Ages. Robin Hood is said to have lived in Sherwood Forest, to the north of the city, with the Sheriff of Nottingham as his greatest enemy. While the legends are almost certainly untrue, particularly in their details, they have had a major impact on Nottingham, with Robin Hood imagery a popular choice for local businesses and many modern tourist attractions exploiting the legend.

The English Civil War began in Nottingham in 1642, when King Charles I raised his standard upon Nottingham Castle. The original castle was demolished by the victorious Parliamentarians in 1651. The castle mansion was built for the Duke of Newcastle on this site, but was gutted in 1831 during riots over the Reform Bill, the then occupant being a known opponent of extending the franchise. In 1878 it was reopened as an art museum.

A major industry in the 19th century was lace-making, with Nottingham lace becoming famous. While some lace-making still goes on in the city, it is no longer of much economic significance. Also in the 19th century, the Nottingham Park Estate was built on the castle's former deer park.

Famous people born in or near Nottingham include William Booth, founder of The Salvation Army, the author D.H. Lawrence, the fashion designer Paul Smith and the actor Richard Beckinsale. The poet Lord Byron resided at Newstead Abbey and is buried at nearby Hucknall.

Government

Nottingham has since April 1, 1998 been a unitary authority, and not been governed by Nottinghamshire County Council. It was a district under Nottinghamshire between 1974 and 1998 - and before then was a county borough. Despite this, Nottingham remains the county town of Nottinghamshire - as the County Council offices are still based there.

Entertainment

Nottingham has a good reputation for a lively pub and club scene and it also boasts some great eating establishments. The large number of students in the city helps to bolster the nighttime entertainment. There are several well established areas of the city centre for entertainment such as Lace Market, Hockley, The Waterfront and The Corner House.

Industry

Nottingham is home to the headquarters of Boots the Chemists, founded in the city by John Boot in 1849 and substantially expanded by his son Jesse Boot. Other large current employers include the credit reference agency Experian, the energy company Powergen and the tobacco company John Player. Until recently a major industry was bicycle making, the city being the birthplace of Raleigh Cycles in 1886. However, the company's factory on Triumph Road, famous as the location for the filming of Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, was demolished in Summer 2003. Other major industries in the city include engineering, textiles, knitwear and electronics.

Culture and sport

Missing image
Nskyline.JPG
A view of the Nottingham skyline

Nottingham has two main theatres, the Nottingham Playhouse and the Theatre Royal (which also houses the Royal Concert Hall). There are also several art galleries which often receive national attention, particularly the castle museum and the Angel Row gallery (attached to the main library). Both of the city's universities also put on a wide range of plays, concerts, and other events throughout term time.

The annual Goose Fair is always popular. More generally, the city is regarded as having a good nightlife, with many clubs and bars in the centre of town that are popular amongst both the local and student communities.

The city is home to two football teams; Nottingham Forest, who play in the Football League, and who under their most famous manager, the late Brian Clough, won the European Cup twice, and Notts County of Football League Two, the oldest Football League team in the UK, having been founded in 1862 (a year before the establishment of the Football Association). The Trent Bridge cricket ground, home of Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club, is frequently a venue for international Test matches.

Also in the city is the National Ice Centre, a large ice skating rink; the city's links to ice skating can be traced back to arguably its most famous children of recent times, Olympic ice dancing champions Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean. The NIC is home to the Nottingham Panthers ice hockey club, one of the UK's top sides. The city also has a rugby club, and a large tennis centre, where the annual Samsung Open is held in the weeks immediately prior to Wimbledon.

The National Ice Centre doubles as Nottingham Arena. Mainstream and popular bands play in the arena on tour. There is also a small award-winning "rock" club called Rock City where less popular rock bands play.

The National Water Sports Centre is based at Holme Pierrepont, with a 2000m regatta lake for rowing, canoeing and sailing, and a white water slalom course. A number of other sailing, rowing and canoeing clubs are based along the River Trent.

Nottingham won the Britain in Bloom competition, in the Large City category, in 1997, 2001 and 2003. It also won the Entente Florale Gold Award in 1998.

Popular tourist attractions in Nottingham include Nottingham Castle, the Galleries of Justice, and the Tales of Robin Hood on Maid Marian Way, as well as the City's ancient pubs.

Shopping

There are four main shopping centres in Nottingham: Victoria Centre, Broadmarsh shopping centre, Exchange Arcade and the Flying Horse Walk, once a famous hotel. The Bridlesmith Gate area has extensive designer shops, and is also the home of the original Paul Smith boutique. At least four major department stores also operate in Nottingham: House of Fraser, John Lewis, Debenhams, and Marks & Spencer. John Lewis was until recently called Jessops, even though owned by John Lewis since 1933. It changed its name in 2002 after a refurbishment. In 2004, an Experian survey rated Nottingham as the fifth best shopping area in the UK.

Education

Missing image
Trent_Building_and_Lake.JPG
The University of Nottingham and Highfields Park

Nottingham is home to two universities: the University of Nottingham and Nottingham Trent University as well as over 35000 full-time students. The University of Nottingham's teaching hospital, Queen's Medical Centre, is the largest hospital in the UK. Other notable educational institutions include the further education college New College Nottingham, Nottingham High School and Nottingham High School for Girls.

The Nottingham School of Fashion is a fashion school respected around the country and produced the designer Paul Smith.

Transport

Nottingham is close to the M1 motorway and is also well served by train services from Nottingham station to London, Birmingham and the north. The nearby Nottingham East Midlands Airport, served by low-cost international airlines, makes the city easily accessible from other parts of the world. Internally, the city is well-served by buses. Nottingham City Transport run frequent services every few minutes within all parts of the city area, and along with TrentBarton run services out of the city to the surrounding picturesque countryside and towns such as Mansfield, Southwell, Loughborough and Long Eaton. A tram system known as Nottingham Express Transit has recently been installed, running from Hucknall in the north to the railway station. An additional spur to/from Phoenix Park serves as a Park and Ride Station close to the M1 motorway (Junction 26). Planned future lines will create a substantial tram network across the city and its suburbs.

Geography

Nottingham is located at Template:Coor dms (52.9667,-1.1667)1.

Template:Simple-compass-table

Areas of Nottingham

Twin cities

See also

External links


Districts of England - East Midlands Flag of England

Amber Valley | Ashfield | Bassetlaw | Blaby | Bolsover | Boston | Broxtowe | Charnwood | Chesterfield | Corby | Daventry | Derby | Derbyshire Dales | East Lindsey | East Northamptonshire | Erewash | Gedling | Harborough | High Peak | Hinckley and Bosworth | Kettering | Leicester | Lincoln | Mansfield | Melton | Newark and Sherwood | Northampton | North East Derbyshire | North Kesteven | North West Leicestershire | Nottingham | Oadby and Wigston | Rushcliffe | Rutland | South Derbyshire | South Holland | South Kesteven | South Northamptonshire | Wellingborough | West Lindsey

Administrative counties with multiple districts: Derbyshire - Leicestershire - Lincolnshire - Northamptonshire - Nottinghamshire

ca:Nottingham de:Nottingham eo:Nottingham fr:Nottingham nl:Nottingham pl:Nottingham pt:Nottingham sl:Nottingham fi:Nottingham sv:Nottingham

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