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Nitrous oxide

From Academic Kids

Structure of Nitrous oxide

General

Name Dinitrogen oxide
Chemical formula N2O
Appearance Colorless gas

Physical

Formula weight 44.0 u
Melting point 182 K (-91 °C)
Boiling point 185 K (-88 °C)
Critical temperature 309.6 K (36.4 °C)
Critical pressure 7.245 MPa
Density 1.2 g/cm3 (liquid)
Solubility 0.112 g in 100g water

Thermochemistry

ΔfH0gas 82.05 kJ/mol
ΔfH0liquid ? kJ/mol
ΔfH0solid ? kJ/mol
S0gas, 100 kPa 219.96 J/(mol·K)
S0liquid, 100 kPa ? J/(mol·K)
S0solid ? J/(mol·K)

Safety

Inhalation See main text. May cause asphyxiation without warning.
Skin Hazardous when cryogenic or compressed.
Eyes Hazardous when cryogenic or compressed.
More info Hazardous Chemical Database (http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/chemicals/21/20556.html)

SI units were used where possible. Unless otherwise stated, standard conditions were used.

Disclaimer and references

Nitrous oxide, also known as dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide, is a chemical compound with chemical formula N2O. Under room conditions it is a colourless non-flammable gas, with a pleasant slightly sweet odor. It is commonly known as laughing gas due to the exhilarating effects of inhaling it, and because it can cause spontaneous laughter in some users. It is used in surgery and dentistry for its anaesthetic and analgesic effects. Nitrous oxide is present in the atmosphere where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. Nitrous oxide is also known as whippets.

Contents

Chemistry

The structure of the nitrous oxide molecule is a linear chain of a nitrogen atom bound to a second nitrogen, which in turn is bound to an oxygen atom. It can be considered a resonance hybrid of

<math> \mbox{N} \equiv \mbox{N}^+ - \mbox{O}^-<math>    and    <math>\mbox{N}^-= \mbox{N}^+= \mbox{O}\;<math>

Nitrous oxide N2O should not be confused with the other nitrogen oxides such as nitric oxide NO and nitrogen dioxide NO2.

Nitrous oxide can be used to produce nitrites by mixing it with boiling alkali metals, and to oxidize organic compounds at high temperatures.

The CAS number of nitrous oxide is 10024-97-2 and its UN number is 1070.

History

The gas was discovered by Joseph Priestley in 1772. Humphry Davy in the 1790s tested the gas on himself and some of his friends, including the poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey. They soon realised that nitrous oxide considerably dulled the sensation of pain, even if the inhaler were still semi-conscious, and so it came into use as an anaesthetic, particularly by dentists, who do not typically have access to the services of an anesthesologist and who may benefit from a patient who can respond to verbal commands.

Uses

Inhalant effects — laughing gas

Nitrous oxide is a dissociative which can cause (by some accounts) euphoria, dizziness, flanging of sound, and, in some cases, slight hallucinations and mild aphrodisiac effect. It can also result in mild nausea or lingering dizziness if too much is inhaled in too short a time. The anaesthetic function of nitrous oxide is not completely understood, but it is thought that the gas interacts with the plasma membranes of nerve cells in the brain and thus affects the communication among such cells at their synapses.

During the 19th century, William James and many contemporaries found that inhalation of nitrous oxide resulted in a powerful spiritual/mystical experience for the breather. James claimed to experience the fusing of dichotomies into a unity and a revelation of ultimate truth during the inhalation of nitrous oxide. Memory of this experience, however, quickly faded and any attempt to communicate it was difficult at best.

The drug currently enjoys moderate popularity in the American psychedelic community. It was often sold at Grateful Dead and Phish concerts, and due to its short duration of effects and consequent potential for repeated use, it has come to be known colloquially as "hippie crack". Recreational users obtain it either from whipped cream chargers or medical-grade tanks.

The recreational use of nitrous oxide is restricted in many districts. In California, for instance, inhalation of nitrous oxide "for the purpose of causing euphoria, or for the purpose of changing in any manner, one’s mental processes," is a criminal offense. (See, Cal. Pen. Code, Sec. 381b (http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cacodes/pen/369a-402c.html).) The Centre for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics, a nonprofit law and policy center in the United States, contends that such laws are unconstitional "prior restraints on speech" and constitute "cognitive censorship."

Since nitrous oxide can cause dizziness, dissociation, and temporary loss of motor control, it is unsafe to inhale while standing up. Inhalation of nitrous oxide directly from a whipped cream charger or a tank poses serious health risks, as it can cause the lungs to collapse from high levels of pressure, forcing air into the chest cavity, and can cause frostbite since the gas is very cold when released. For those reasons, most recreational nitrous oxide users will discharge the gas into a balloon before inhaling.

While the pure gas itself is not toxic, death can result if it is inhaled in such a way that not enough oxygen is breathed in. Long-term use in large quantities has been associated with dangerous symptoms similar to vitamin B12 deficiency: anemia, neuropathy, tinnitus, and numbness in extremities. It can be habit-forming, mainly because of its short-lived effect (fewer than 60 seconds in recreational doses) and ease of access. Inhaling industrial-grade nitrous oxide is also dangerous, as it contains many impurities and is not intended for use on humans. Finally, nitrous oxide should not be confused with nitric oxide, a poisonous gas.

A 50/50 mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen ("gas and air", supplied under the trade name Entonox) is commonly used as a mild analgesic and anaesthetic in medicine, particularly during childbirth, for dental procedures, and in emergency medicine.

Aerosol propellant

The gas is licensed for use as a food additive, specifically as an aerosol spray propellant. Its most common uses in this context are in aerosol whipped cream canisters and as an inert gas used to displace staleness-inducing oxygen when filling packages of potato chips and other similar snack foods.

The gas is excellently soluble in fatty compounds. In aerosol whipped cream, it is dissolved in the fatty cream until it leaves the can, when it becomes gaseous and thus creates foam.

Rocket motors

Nitrous oxide can be used as an oxidiser in a rocket engine. This has the advantages over other oxidisers that it is non-toxic and, due to its stability at room temperature, easy to store and relatively safe to carry on a flight.

Nitrous oxide has notably been the oxidiser of choice in several hybrid rocket designs (using solid fuel with a liquid or gaseous oxidiser). The combination of nitrous oxide with hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene fuel has been used by SpaceShipOne and others.

Internal Combustion Engine

In car racing, nitrous oxide (often just "nitrous" or "nitro" in this context) is sometimes injected into the intake manifold (or just prior to the intake manifold) to increase power: even though the gas itself is not flammable, it delivers more oxygen than atmospheric air by breaking down at elevated temperatures, thus allowing the engine to burn more fuel and air. Additionally, since nitrous oxide is stored as a liquid, the evaporation of liquid nitrous oxide in the intake manifold causes a large drop in intake charge temperature. This results in a smaller, denser charge, and can reduce detonation, as well as increase power available to the engine.

The same technique was used during World War II to boost the power of aircraft engines, particularly by the Luftwaffe which had less access to fuel with higher octane ratings than did the Royal Air Force and United States Air Force.

One of the major problems of using nitrous oxide in a reciprocating engine is that it can produce enough power to destroy the engine. Power increases of 100-300% are possible, and unless the mechanical structure of the engine is reinforced, most engines would not survive this kind of operation.

It is very important with nitrous oxide augmentation of internal combustion engines to maintain temperatures and fuel levels so as to prevent preignition, or detonation (sometimes referred to as knocking, pinging or pinking).

Nitrous oxide in the atmosphere

Missing image
Major_greenhouse_gas_trends.png
Greenhouse gas trends

Nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide included, are greenhouse gases; nitrous oxide has 270 times the effect of carbon dioxide for producing global warming. Therefore, nitrogen oxides are a subject of efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions, such as the Kyoto Protocol.

Nitrous oxide is naturally emitted from soils and oceans. Human activity contributes to the release of the gas through the cultivation of soil and the use of nitrogen fertilizers, the production of nylon, and the burning of fossil fuels and other organic matter.

Laughing Gas in fiction

External links

Template:Dissociative hallucinogensda:Lattergas de:Lachgas sv:Lustgas es:xido nitroso it:ossido di diazoto fr:Protoxyde d'azote it:Ossido di diazoto nl:Lachgas ja:亜酸化窒素 pl:Podtlenek azotu ru:Закись азота

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