From Academic Kids
- This is about the island in Canada. For the Canadian province formerly and still colloquially known as Newfoundland, see Newfoundland and Labrador. For other meanings of Newfoundland, see Newfoundland (disambiguation).
|Water area:||7,797 km²|
|Highest Point:||Lewis Hills|
|Longest River:||Exploits River|
|Admin HQ:||St. John's|
|Largest City:||St. John's|
|Government of Newfoundland & Labrador|
|Members of the Parliament of Canada:||6|
|Members of the Senate of Canada:||6|
|Members of the Parliament of Newfoundland:||44|
Newfoundland (French: Terre-Neuve; Irish: Talamh an Éisc; Latin: Terra Nova) is a large island off the north-east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. (The province was called "Newfoundland" until 2001.)
Newfoundland is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Cape Breton Island by the Cabot Strait. It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest estuary.
It is 111,390 km2 in area, making it the world's 15th largest island. The provincial capital, St. John's, is found on the southeastern tip of the island. Cape Spear, just south of the capital, is the easternmost point of North America. The island of Newfoundland has an approximate population of 485,000.
The word 'Newfoundland' is pronounced by Newfoundlanders with the second syllable slurred and the accent on the first, (as 'NEW-f'nd-land'). Newfoundland has a dialect of English known as Newfoundland English, a dialect of French known as Newfoundland French and a dialect of Irish known as Newfoundland Irish.
Discovery, Colonization, and Settlement
Newfoundland is the site of the only authenticated Viking settlement in North America, discovered by Norwegian explorer Dr. Helge Ingstad and his archaeologist wife, Anne Stine Ingstad, at L'Anse aux Meadows in 1960. The site of a multi-year archaeological dig, the settlement dating to more than 500 years before Christopher Columbus contains the earliest European structures in North America. Named a World Heritage site by UNESCO, it is believed to be the legendary Vinland settlement of explorer Leif Ericson.
After the Vikings, the first European visitors to Newfoundland were Portuguese and English migratory fishermen. Late in the 17th century came Irish fishermen, who named the island Talamh an Éisc, meaning "land of the fish", or "the fishing grounds" in Irish Gaelic. This was to foreshadow the centuries of importance of Newfoundland's offshore fishing waters.
Newfoundland was visited by Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) in 1497, who landed at either Bonavista or St. John's. It was probably also sighted by Giovanni da Verrazano in 1524, whose expedition was financed by the citizens of Lyon, under the auspices of King François I of France.
On July 5, 1610, John Guy set sail from Bristol, England with 39 other colonists for Newfoundland. However, early attempts at permanent colonization failed, and only with the growth of the annual migratory fishery from southwest England and southeast Ireland were early permanent settlements established.
A Skeltonicall continued ryme, in praise of my New-found-Land
- Although in cloaths, company, buildings faire
- With England, New-found-land cannot compare:
- Did some know what contentment I found there,
- Alwayes enough, most times somewhat to spare,
- With little paines, lesse toyle, and lesser care,
- Exempt from taxings, ill newes, Lawing, feare,
- If cleane, and warme, no matter what you weare,
- Healthy, and wealthy, if men carefull are,
- With much-much more, then I will now declare,
- (I say) if some wise men knew what this were
- (I doe beleeue) they'd live no other where.
- From 'The First Booke of Qvodlibets'
- Composed and done at Harbor-Grace in
- Britaniola, anciently called Newfound-Land
- By Governor Robert Hayman - 1628.
Points of Interest and Major Settlements
Gros Morne National Park is located on the west coast of Newfoundland and was named a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987 due to its complex geology and remarkable scenery. It is the largest national park in Atlantic Canada at 1,805 km² (697 sq. mi.).
Stephenville, a town of about 8000, once served as an airport base for the US army in the early 1940s. It is about 20 miles north of its former train station, which is surrounded by the town of Stephenville Crossing.
Sandy Point, which is located in Bay Saint George and north of the town of St. George's, was the first and largest settlement of the west coast. However, the last settler, Alphonsus Swyers, was forced to abandon in 1973.
In March, the annual seal hunt (of the harp seal) takes place.
Largest communities (2001 population)
- St. John's (98,182)
- Mount Pearl (24,964)
- Corner Brook (20,103)
- Conception Bay South (19,772)
- Grand Falls-Windsor (13,340)
- Gander (9,651)
- Paradise (9,598)
- Stephenville (7,109)
- Marystown (5,908)
- Portugal Cove-St. Philip's (5,866)
- Torbay (5,474)
- Bay Roberts (5,237)
- Clarenville (5,104)
- Deer Lake (4,769)
- Carbonear (4,759)
- Channel-Port aux Basques (4,637)
- Placentia (4,426)
- Bonavista (4,021)
- Bishop's Falls (3,688)
- Gibbons, Henry K. 1997. The Myth and Mystery of John Cabot: The Discoverer of North America. Marten Cat Publishers, Port Aux Basques, Newfoundland.
- Harris, Michael. 1992. Rare Ambition: The Crosbies of Newfoundland. Penguin. ISBN: 0-14-023220-6
- Newfoundland History: extensive site from Marianopolis College (http://www2.marianopolis.edu/nfldhistory/index.html)