Negeri Sembilan

From Academic Kids

نڬري سمبيلن دار الخصوص Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus
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Bendera_nsembilan.png
Image:Bendera nsembilan.png

Image:Lambang nsembilan.png
State Flag Coat of Arms
State motto: no State motto
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MalaysiaNegeriSembilan.png


Capital Seremban
Royal Capital Seri Menanti
Yang di-Pertuan Besar Tuanku Jaafar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman
Chief Minister YAB Dato' Seri Utama Mohamad Haji Hasan
Area 6,645 km2
Population
 - Est. year 2000

878 500
State anthem Berkatlah Yang DiPertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan

Negeri Sembilan (also Negri Sembilan, Jawi: سمبلان سمبيلن), meaning "nine states" in Malay, is a state of Malaysia. It is located on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia, just south of Kuala Lumpur and is bordered in the north by Selangor, in the east by Pahang and in the south by Melaka and Johor.

The name is believed to derive from the nine districts or "nagari" (now known as "luak") settled by the Minangkabau, a people originally from West Sumatra (present-day Indonesia). Minangkabau features are still visible today in traditional architecture and the dialect of Malay spoken. Unlike the hereditary monarchs of the other royal Malay states, the ruler of Negeri Sembilan - known as [[Yang di-Pertuan Besar]] - is selected by the council of undang who lead the four biggest districts of Sungai Ujong, Jelebu, Johol and Rembau.

The capital of Negeri Sembilan is Seremban. The royal capital is Seri Menanti in Kuala Pilah district. Other important cities are Port Dickson and Nilai.

The Arabic honorific of the state is Darul Khusus ("the Special Abode").

The ethnic composition in 1995 was: Malay (391,500 or 46%), Chinese (220,000 or 36%), Indian (123,200), Other (10,800), Other Bumiputra (7,000). For political purposes, the Minangkabau residents of Malaysia are regarded as Malay.

Contents

History

Minangkabau from Sumatra settled in Negeri Sembilan in the 15th century under the protection of the Melaka Sultanate, and later under the protection of its successor, the Sultanate of Johor. As Johor weakened in the 18th century, attacks by the Bugis forced the Minangkabaus to seek protection from a prince from their homeland. The Minangkabau ruler, Sultan Abdul Jalil, obliged by sending his near relative, Raja Melawar. Arriving to find that a certain Raja Khatib had already established himself as ruler, Melawar was forced to compromise with the lesser chiefs in order to secure his position. He defeated Raja Khitab with their help, receiving Sri Menanti as his personal domain. The Sultan of Johor, confirmed his position by granting the title Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negri Sembilan (He Who is Highest Lord of the Nine States) in 1773. After Raja Melawar's death, a series of disputes arose over the succession. For a considerable period, the local nobles applied to the Minangkabau ruler in Sumatra for their rulers. However, competing interests supported different candidates, often resulting in instability and civil war.

In 1873, the British intervened militarily in a civil war in Sungai Ujong to preserve British economic interests, and placed the country under the control of a British Resident. Jelebu followed in 1886, and the remaining states in 1895. In 1897, when the Federated Malay States (FMS) was established, Sungai Ujong and Jelebu were reunited to the confederation of small states and the whole, under the old name of the Negri Sembilan, was placed under a single Resident and became a member of the FMS.

The number of states within Negri Sembilan has fluctuated over the years, the federation now consists of seven states: Jelebu, Johol, Linggi, Rembau, Sri Menanti, Sungai Ujong and Tampin. The former state of Naning was annexed by Melaka, Klang by Selangor, and Segamat by Johor.

The rulers of the seven remaining states are known collectively as the Undang Laut. All, save Sri Menanti and Tampin, are themselves, selected by the nobles of their states. They all take part in the selection of the Yang di-Pertuan Besar.

Negri Sembilan endured Japanese occupation in World War II between 1941 and 1945, and joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and became a state of Malaysia in 1963.

The current Yang di-Pertuan Besar is Tuanku Jaafar ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman, born 1922, who was elected in 1967. While the new Menteri Besar or Chief Minister of the state is YAB Dato' Seri Utama Mohamad Haji Hasan.

Economy

Negeri Sembilan is mainly an agricultural state. However, the establishment of several industrial estates enhanced the manufacturing sector as a major contributor towards the state economy.

Agricultural activity includes rubber and oil palm plantations, livestock, fruit orchards and vegetable farming. About 309,850 hectares are used for rubber and oil palm plantations.

Manufacturing activity includes electrical and electronics, textiles, furniture, chemicals, machinery, metalworks and rubber products. The main industrial areas are Senawang, Sungai Gadut, Tuanku Jaafar Industrial Park, Nilai and Tanah Merah in Port Dickson.

List of Districts

External links


States and Federal Territories of Malaysia Flag of Malaysia
States: Johor | Kedah | Kelantan | Malacca | Negeri Sembilan | Pahang | Perak | Perlis | Penang | Sabah | Sarawak | Selangor | Terengganu
Federal Territories: Kuala Lumpur | Labuan | Putrajaya
de:Negeri Sembilan

id:Negeri Sembilan ms:Negeri Sembilan nl:Negeri Sembilan (staat) ja:ヌグリ・スンビラン州

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