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Mukacheve

From Academic Kids

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Mukacheve_Coat_of_Arms.jpg
Mukacheve coat of arms

Mukacheve (Ukrainian: Мукачеве (Mukacheve), Ruthenian: Мукачів (Mukachiv), Russian: Мукачево (Mukachevo), Hungarian: Munkács, Slovak and Czech: Mukačevo, German: Munkatsch, Yiddish: Munkacz or Minkatsh) is a city in Zakarpattia Oblast of southwestern Ukraine. It is located in the valley of the Latorytsa river. It has a castle from the IX to XVI centuries on top of the Lamkova hill. Population in 1989 was 85,000 and is now 77,300 (2004).

Earlier it was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (11th century - 1918 and 1938-1944) and of Czechoslovakia (1918-1938 and 1944-1945).

The city is now a rail terminus and highway junction, and has Beer, Wine, Tobacco, Food, Textile, Timber and Furniture industries.

Today Mukacheve has mainly Ukrainian and Ruthenian inhabitants, a small community of Hungarians, and a small Jewish Community.

Contents

Timeline

For early history (Great Moravia, Kievan Rus) see Carpathian Ruthenia.

  • 9th to 11th centuries: Mukacheve was part of the Kievan Rus state.
  • 1018: Mukacheve was taken by the Hungarians and became the center of power of Hungarian Kings.
  • 1397: The town and its surrounding was granted by king Sigismund of Luxemburg to the Ruthenian prince Theodor Koriatovich, who settled many Ruthenians in the territory.
  • 1445: The town became a free royal town.
  • 15th century: Became a prominent craft & trade center for the region.
  • 16th century: Became part of the Transylvanian duchy.
  • 1604-1711: Anti-Habsburg revolts in this territory and present-day Slovakia.
  • 1685-1688: Beginning of the anti-Habsburg Revolt of Imre Thkly.
  • Early 18th century: Beginning of the revolt of Ferenc II. Rkczi.
  • 18th century: Came under Austrian control and was made a key fortess of the Austro-Hungarian empire.
  • 1726: The castle and the town, before 1711 owned by the Rkczi family, was given by the Habsburgs to the Schnborn family, who were responsible for an expansion of the town. They also settled many Germans in the territory, thereby causing an economic boom of the region.
  • 1796-1897: The Mukacheve castle, until then a strong fortress, became a prison.
  • 1821-1823: The Greek national hero Alexander Ypsilanti was imprisonned at the Mukacheve castle.
  • 1919: After the American Rusyns had agreed with Tomas Masaryk to incorporate Carpathian Ruthenia into Czechoslovakia, along with whole Carpathian Ruthenia was occupied by Czechoslovak troops.
  • June 4, 1920: The city officially became a part of Czechoslovakia by the Treaty of Trianon.
  • November 1938: Under German-Hungarian occupation. By the Vienna Award (Vienna Arbitration), the town, along with the remaining southern Carpathian Ruthenia, became part of Hungary again.
  • 1944: The deportation of the Jewish population to concentration camps. Mukacheve was the only one in Hungary with Jewish majority until 1944, when all the Jews were deported to Auschwitz by the Eichmann Commando. The Hungarian Jewish community was the last deported in Europe.
  • End of 1944: The Soviet Army arrived to Carpathian Ruthenia (at that time part of Czechoslovakia again) and the territory became part of the Soviet Union by a treaty between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union of 1945. High numbers of Hungarians and Ruthenians were deported to Siberia and mostly never returned.
  • 1945: Ceded to the Ukrainian SSR (now Ukraine)
  • 2002: Mukacheve has been the seat of the Roman Catholic diocese comprising Transcarpathia.

Jewish community

See Munkacz (Hasidic dynasty)

There are documents in the Beregovo (Beregszas) State Archives which indicate that Jews lived in Munkacs and the surrounding villages as early as the second half of the seventeenth century. The Jewish community of Munkacs was an amalgam of Galician & Hungarian Hasidic Jewry, assimilationists, and Zionists . There was also no lack of (non-hasidic) Orthodox Jews.

In this bastion of anti-Zionism, all forms of Zionism neverthless flowered. The Hebrew Gymnasium was founded in Munkacz five years after the first Hebrew speaking elementary school in Czechoslovakia was established there in 1920. It soon became the most prestigious Hebrew high school east of Warsaw. Zionist activism along with Chasidic pietism contributed to a community percolating with excitement, intrigue and at times internecine conflict

Today, what remains of the Jewish community of Mukachevo is fewer than 300 Jews including eight Jewish men and less than twenty Jewish women who were born there before World War II; their average age being over eighty.

Architectural landmarks

  • Castle (14th century). The castle of Mukacheve/Munkcs, called the Palanok Castle, played an important role during the anti-Habsburg revolts in this territory and present-day Slovakia (1604 - 1711), especially at the beginning of the anti-Habsburg Revolt of Imre Thkly (1685-1688), as well as at the beginning of the revolt of Ferenc II. Rkczi (early 18th century). The Mukacheve castle, until then a strong fortress, became a prison from the end of the 18th century to 1897. The Greek national hero Alexander Ypsilanti was imprisonned here from 1821 to 1823.
  • Monastery (14th century)
  • Wooden church built in the Ukrainian architectural style (18th century)

External links

hu:Munkcs pl:Mukaczewo ru:Мукачево uk:Мукачево

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