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Mindaugas

From Academic Kids

Modern portrait of Mindaugas
Modern portrait of Mindaugas

Mindaugas (approximate English transcription [ˈmın.dəʊ.gʌs], simplified Lithuanian transcription [mindaŭgas]; also known as Mindowh (Ruthenian), Mindowe (Polish), Mendog (Polish, modern), Міндо́ўг (Mindoŭh) (Belarusian), Mindovg (Russian)) (c.1203 - 12 September 1263) ruled Lithuania as grand duke ("didysis kunigaikštis", "вялікі князь") from c.1236 (a Christian from 1251) and as king ("karalius", "кароль") from 1253.

He united local tribal "duchies", conquered Black Ruthenia.

He and his wife Morta were baptized around 1252 by the bishop of Kulm (now Chelmno) in the presence of the Master of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword. A member of the Order named Christian was consecrated as first bishop of Lithuania.

This raised a huge opposition and the Baltic peoples continued to resist conversion to Christianity, and after defeat by pagan forces in 1260, Mindaugas renounced Christianity. He was killed by his nephew Treniota and Duke Daumantas of Nalšiai. Under the usurper Treniota, of strong paganist beliefs, the country relapsed into paganism until the conversion (1386) of grand duke Jogaila.

Only with Gediminas, grand duke from 1316, did Lithuania's revival begin. While most of Lithuanian grand dukes from Jogaila onward reigned also as kings of Poland, their titles remained separate, and Mindaugas was the only King of Lithuania, recognized as such by Western European rulers.

Contents

Father

Ryngold (Movkold; ? - 1219), Grand Prince of Lithuania 1214 - 1219

Wife

Morta, baptized ca 1252 by the bishop of Kulm

Brother

Dowsprunk (? - 1213 near Lielvarde), Grand Prince of Lithuania ? - 1213

Son

Vaivilkas (Woyszwiłk, Vojszalak, Vojšalk, Vaišelga, Vaishyalga, Vaišalgas, Rymont Lawrasz, Rimond Laurent; + killed 9 December 1268 Vladimir), Prince of Black Ruthenia 1239 - 1254, Grand Prince of Lithuania 1254, 1258 1263

Daughter

NN (1201 - 1264), m. 1255 King varn of Galicia

See also

External links

de:Mindaugas I. (Litauen) et:Mindaugas it:Mindaugas ja:ミンダウカス lt:Mindaugas no:Mindaugas I av Litauen pl:Mendog

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