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Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270

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Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270 Zh-1
Image:Mig270.jpg
Description
RoleInterceptor
Crewone, pilot
Dimensions
Length8.91 m29 ft 2 in
Wingspan7.75 m25 ft 5 in
Height3.08 m10 ft 1 in
Wing area12 m²129 ft²
Weights
Empty1,546 kg3,408 lb
Loaded4,150 kg9,150 lb
Powerplant
Engine1x Dushkin-Glushko RD-2M-3V rocket
Thrust14.2 kN3,190 lbf
Performance
Maximum speed1,000 km/h620 mph
Endurance9 minutes
Service ceiling17,000 m55,750 ft
Rate of Climb4,220 m/min13,800 ft/min
Armament
Guns2x 23 mm Nudelman NS-23 machine guns

The Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270 (Design Ж ("Zh") under Mikoyan-Gurevich's in-house designation sequence, USAF designation "Type 12") was a response to a Soviet Air Force requirement in 1945 for a rocket-powered interceptor aircraft for the point-defence role. In concept and basic configuration, it was strongly reminiscent of the German Messerschmitt Me 263, and is generally regarded as a further development of that design. Only two prototypes were built, both of which were destroyed in crashes, leading to the cancellation of the project.

In the closing stages of World War II, a complete prototype Me 263 (at that time designated Junkers Ju 248), plus technical staff and design documentation had fallen into Soviet hands when the Junkers factory was captured. The I-270 shared the Me 263's simple, tapered fuselage, bubble canopy, undercarriage design, and dual-chambered bipropellant rocket motor. On the other hand, it was considerably larger than the Me 263 and featured straight wings and a T-tail in place of the Me 263's advanced swept wings that did away with the need for a horizontal stabiliser. While there seems little doubt that the Me 263 influenced the design of the I-270, the latter appears far from a direct copy of the former. Some sources suggest that the I-270 may also have been influenced by the Junkers EF 126 rocket fighter project, materials for which were captured by the Soviets at the same time as the Me 263.

The first gliding trials commenced in December 1946, with the first prototype towed into the air behind a Tupolev Tu-2, ballast loaded in place of an engine. The second prototype began powered tests early in 1947, but was damaged beyond repair making a hard landing. Shortly afterwards, the first prototype was also destroyed in a landing accident. By this stage, turbojet technology was at a far more advanced stage than it had been at the outset of the project, and surface-to-air missiles had replaced the need for point-defence interceptors. Under these circumstances, the Air Force decided to cancel the project.

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