List of Finnish monarchs

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This is a list of rulers of Finland, that is, the Kings, ruling Dukes and Queen of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union, the Grand Dukes of Finland (identical with the Tsars of Russia), up to the brief Kingdom of Finland at independence in 1918. This includes:

It is highly dubious whether Finland was in any effect joined to Sweden by the Crusade of Saint Eric (around 1154), though that occasion and date has received the established position of start of this political union. The expedition itself is only based on legends, it may have not happened or it probably was at most a small expedition without permanent effect, at least not political effect. Administrative subjugation of Finland took place more reliably during Birger Jarl in mid-13th century. The monarch list below is made based on the most "optimistic" hypothesis of the start of dominion. In practical terms, most of those medieval kings played no significant role in Finland, which was more or less governed by its own people, usualy lead by bishop of Turku.

An interpretation has been made that the part "Vend" in the later established titulary of Kings of Sweden (three crowns in the Coat of Arms, three kingdoms: Kings of Svears, Götars och Vends; Sveriges, Götes och Vendes Konung) means Finland, the form being akin to Findland, Vindland. As such, the Österland (=medievally inhabited parts of Finland) was the third kingdom and part of the realm.

The kingdom was superseded by the Republic of Finland with the republican constitution of 17 July, 1919.


Swedish rulers

Swedish influence in Finland was considerable in pre-Christian times. The Vikings were known to Finns both due to their participation in commerce and plundering. Finland's nearly 700-year association with the Kingdom of Sweden did or did not began in approximately 1154 with the introduction of Christianity by a Crusade and an expedition by a svea (Uplandic) nobleman Eric Jedvardson, later known as Saint Eric who became King Eric IX of Sweden.

In 1362 Finnish representatives got first time the entitlement to participate in the election of the Swedish king, whereby from that time Finland can be regarded as one of the Lands of Sweden.

The Houses of Sverker and Eric

The House of Folkung

Rulers of the Kalmar Union and Regents/Viceroys

(Valtionhoitaja, Riksföreståndare)
Charles VIII
Charles VIII

The House of Vasa

Johan III
Johan III

The House of the Palatinate

Charles XII
Charles XII

The House of Hesse

The House of Holstein-Gottorp

Gustav III
Gustav III

Russian rulers

Grand Dukes of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinas)

The House of Romanov

Missing image
Nicholas II


Acting Heads of State

(Regents or Protectors of State (Suomen valtionhoitaja) are listed under Presidents of Finland)

The House of Hesse

See also


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