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Linked list

From Academic Kids

In computer science, a linked list is one of the fundamental data structures used in computer programming. It consists of a sequence of nodes, each containing arbitrary data fields and one or two references ("links") pointing to the next and/or previous nodes. A linked list is called a self-referential datatype because it contains a pointer or link to another data of the same type. Linked lists permit insertion and removal of nodes at any point in the list in constant time, but do not allow random access. Several different types of linked list exist: singly-linked lists, doubly-linked lists, and circularly-linked lists.

Linked lists can be implemented in most languages. Lisp and Scheme have the data structure built in, along with operations to access the linked list. Languages such as C and C++ rely on pointers and memory addressing to create linked lists.

Contents

History

Linked lists were developed in 1955-56 by Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw and Herbert Simon at RAND Corporation as the primary data structure for their Information Processing Language. IPL was used by the authors to develop several early artificial intelligence programs, including the Logic Theory Machine, the General Problem Solver, and a computer chess program. Reports on their work appeared in IRE Transactions on Information Theory in 1956, and several conference proceedings from 1957-1959, including Proceedings of the Western Joint Computer Conference in 1957 and 1958, and Information Processing (Proceedings of the first UNESCO International Conference on Information Processing) in 1959. The now-classic diagram consisting of blocks representing list nodes with arrows pointing to successive list nodes appears in "Programming the Logic Theory Machine" by Newell and Shaw in Proc. WJCC, February 1957. Newell and Simon were recognized with the ACM Turing Award in 1975 for having "made basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing."

The problem of machine translation for natural language processing led Victor Yngve at MIT to use linked lists as data structures in his COMIT programming language for computer research in the field of linguistics. A report on this language entitled "A programming language for mechanical translation" appeared in Mechanical Translation in 1958.

LISP, standing for list processor, was created by John McCarthy in 1958 while he was at MIT and in 1960 he published its design in a paper in the Communications of the ACM, entitled "Recursive Functions of Symbolic Expressions and Their Computation by Machine, Part I". One of LISP's major data structures is the linked list.

By the early 1960's, the utility of both linked lists and languages which use these structures as their primary data representation was well established. Bert Green of the MIT Lincoln Laboratory published a review article entitled "Computer languages for symbol manipulation" in IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics in March 1961 which summarized the advantages of the linked list approach. A later review article, "A Comparison of list-processing computer languages" by Bobrow and Raphael, appeared in Communications of the ACM in April 1964.

Several operating systems developed by Technical Systems Consultants (originally of West Lafayette Indiana, and later of Raleigh, North Carolina) used singly linked lists as file structures. A directory entry pointed to the first sector of a file, and succeeding portions of the file were located by traversing pointers. Systems using this technique included Flex (for the Motorola 6800 CPU), mini-Flex (same CPU), and Flex9 (for the Motorola 6809 CPU). A variant developed by TSC for and marketed by Smoke Signal Broadcasting in California, used doubly linked lists in the same manner.

The TSS operating system, developed by IBM for the System 360/370 machines, used a double linked list for their file system catalog. The directory structure was similar to Unix, where a directory could contain files and/or other directories and extend to any depth. A utility flea was created to fix file system problems after a crash, since modified portions of the file catalog were sometimes in memory when a crash occurred. Problems were detected by comparing the forward and backward links for consistency. If a forward link was corrupt, then if a backward link to the infected node was found, the forward link was set to the node with the backward link. A humorous comment in the source code where this utility was invoked stated "Everyone knows a flea caller gets rid of bugs in cats."

Variants

Singly-linked list

The simplest kind of linked list is a singly-linked list (or slist for short), which has one link per node. This link points to the next node in the list, or to a null value or empty list if it is the last node.

Image:Singly_linked_list.png
A singly linked list containing three integer values

Doubly-linked list

A more sophisticated kind of linked list is a doubly-linked list. Each node has two links, one to the previous node and one to the next.

Missing image
Doublylinkedlist.png
Image:doublylinkedlist.png


An example of a doubly linked list.

In some very low level languages, Xor-linking offers a way to implement doubly-linked lists using a single word for both links, although the use of this technique is usually discouraged.

Circularly-linked list

In a circularly-linked list, the first and last nodes are linked together. This can be done for both singly and doubly linked lists. To traverse a circular linked list, you begin at any node and follow the list in either direction until you return to the original node. Viewed another way, circularly-linked lists can be seen as having no beginning or end. This type of list is most useful for managing buffers for data ingest, and in cases where you have one object in a list and wish to see all other objects in the list.

Sentinel nodes

Linked lists sometimes have a special dummy or sentinel node at the beginning and/or at the end of the list, which is not used to store data. Its purpose is to simplify or speed up some operations, by ensuring that every data node always has a previous and/or next node, and that every list (even one that contains no data elements) always has a "first" and "last" node.

Applications of linked lists

Linked lists are used as a building block for many other data structures, such as stacks, queues and their variations.

The "data" field of a node can be another linked list. By this device, one can construct many linked data structures with lists; this practice originated in the Lisp programming language, where linked lists are a primary (though by no means the only) data structure, and is now a common feature of the functional programming style.

Sometimes, linked lists are used to implement associative arrays, and are in this context called association lists. There is very little good to be said about this use of linked lists; they are easily outperformed by other data structures such as self-balancing binary search trees even on small data sets (see the discussion in associative array). However, sometimes a linked list is dynamically created out of a subset of nodes in such a tree, and used to more efficiently traverse that set.

Tradeoffs

As with most choices in computer programming and design, no method is well suited to all circumstances. A linked list data structure might work well in one case, but cause problems in another. This is a list of some of the common tradeoffs involving linked list structures. In general, if you have a dynamic collection, where elements are frequently being added and deleted, and the location of new elements added to the list is significant, then benefits of a linked list increase.

Linked lists vs. arrays

Array Linked list
Indexing O(1) O(n)
Inserting O(n) O(1)
Deleting O(n) O(1)
Persistent No Singly yes
Locality Great Bad

Linked lists have several advantages over arrays. They allow a new element to be inserted or deleted at any position in a constant number of operations (changing some references), while arrays require a linear (O(n)) number of operations. Elements can also be inserted into linked lists indefinitely, while an array will eventually either fill up or need to be resized, an expensive operation that may not even be possible if memory is fragmented. Similarly, an array from which many elements are removed may become wastefully empty or need to be made smaller.

Further memory savings can be achieved, in certain cases, by sharing the same "tail" of elements among two or more lists — that is, the lists end in the same sequence of elements. In this way, one can add new elements to the front of the list while keeping a reference to both the new and the old versions — a simple example of a persistent data structure.

On the other hand, arrays allow random access, while linked lists allow only sequential access to elements. Singly-linked lists, in fact, can only be traversed in one direction. This makes linked lists unsuitable for applications where it's useful to look up an element by its index quickly, such as heapsort. Sequential access on arrays is also faster than on linked lists on many machines due to locality of reference and data caches. Linked lists receive almost no benefit from the cache.

Another disadvantage of linked lists is the extra storage needed for references, which often makes them impractical for lists of small data items such as characters or boolean values. It can also be slow, and with a nave allocator, wasteful, to allocate memory separately for each new element, a problem generally solved using memory pools.

A number of linked list variants exist that aim to ameliorate some of the above problems. Unrolled linked lists store several elements in each list node, increasing cache performance while decreasing memory overhead for references. CDR coding does both these as well, by replacing references with the actual data referenced, which extends off the end of the referencing record.

A good example that highlights the pros and cons of using arrays vs. linked lists is by implementing a program that resolves the Josephus problem. The Josephus problem is an election method that works by having a group of people stand in a circle. Starting at a predetermined person, you count around the circle n times. Once you reach nth person, take them out of the circle and have the members close the circle. Then count around the circle the same n times and repeat the process, until only one person is left. That person wins the election. This shows the strengths and weaknesses of a linked list vs. an array, because if you view the people as connected nodes in a circular linked list then it shows how easily the linked list is able to delete nodes (as it only has to rearrange the links to the different nodes). However, the linked list will be poor at finding the next person to remove and will need to recurse through the list till it finds that person. An array, on the other hand, will be poor at deleting nodes (or elements) as it cannot remove one node without individually shifting all the elements up the list by one. However, it is exceptionally easy to find the nth person in the circle by directly referencing them by their position in the array.

Double-linking vs. single-linking

Double-linked lists require more space per node (unless one uses xor-linking), and their elementary operations are more expensive; but they are often easier to manipulate because they allow sequential access to the list in both directions. In particular, one can insert or delete a node in a constant number of operations given only that node's address. Some algorithms require access in both directions. On the other hand, they do not allow tail-sharing, and cannot be used as persistent data structures.

Circular lists

Circular linked lists are most useful for describing naturally circular structures, and have the advantage of regular structure and being able to traverse the list starting at any point. They also allow quick access to the first and last records through a single pointer (the address of the last element). Their main disadvantage is the complexity of iteration, which has subtle special cases.

Sentinel nodes

Sentinel nodes may simplify certain list operations, by ensuring that the next and/or previous nodes exist for every element. However sentinel nodes use up extra space (especially in applications that use many short lists), and they may complicate other operations. To avoid the extra space requirement the sentinel nodes can often be reused as head and/or tail pointers.

Linked list operations

When manipulating linked lists in-place, care must be taken to not use values that you have invalidated in previous assignments. This makes algorithms for inserting or deleting linked list nodes somewhat subtle. This section gives pseudocode for adding or removing nodes from singly, doubly, and circularly linked lists in-place. Throughout we will use null to refer to an end-of-list marker or sentinel, which may be implemented in a number of ways.

Singly-linked lists

Our node data structure will have two fields. We also keep a variable head which always points to the first node in the list, or is null for an empty list.

 record Node {
    data // The data being stored in the node;
         // often a reference to the actual data
    next // A reference to the next node
 }
 
 Node head  // points to front of list
 Node nodeBeingRemoved  // used in later examples

Traversal of a singly-linked list is easy, beginning at the first node and following each next link until we come to the end:

 node := head // start at front of list
 while node not null { // loop through list
     (do something with node.data)
     node := node.next // go to next node in list
 }

The following code inserts a node after an existing node in a singly linked list. The diagram shows how it works. Inserting a node before an existing one cannot be done; instead, you have to locate it while keeping track of the previous node.

 function insertAfter(Node node, Node newNode) { // insert newNode after node
     newNode.next := node.next // point new node to next node
     node.next    := newNode    // add new node to list
 }

Inserting at the beginning of the list requires a separate function. This requires updating head.

 function insertBeginning(Node newNode) { // insert node before current head
     newNode.next := head    // point to rest of list
     head         := newNode // new front of list
 }

Similarly, we have functions for removing the node after a given node, and for removing a node from the beginning of the list. The diagram demonstrates the former. To find and remove a particular node, one must again keep track of the previous element.

Missing image
Singly_linked_list_delete_after.png


 function removeAfter(Node node) { // remove node past this one
     nodeBeingRemoved := node.next    // this is the node to delete
     node.next := node.next.next      // point past node
     (the above statement could be node.next = nodeBeingRemoved.next)
     destroy nodeBeingRemoved         // free up deleted node
 }
 function removeBeginning(Node node) { // remove head node
     nodeBeingRemoved := head   // this is the node to delete
     head := head.next          // point past deleted node
     destroy nodeBeingRemoved   // free up deleted node
 }

Notice that removeBeginning() sets head to null when removing the last node in the list.

Doubly-linked lists

With doubly-linked lists there are even more pointers to update, but also less information is needed, since we can use backwards pointers to observe preceding elements in the list. This enables new operations, and eliminates special-case functions. We will add a prev field to our nodes, pointing to the previous element, and a tail variable which always points to the last node in the list. Both head and tail are null for an empty list.

Iterating through a doubly linked list can be done in either direction. In fact, direction can change many times, if desired.

Forwards

 node := head
 while node ≠ null
     <do something with node.data>
     node := node.next

Backwards

 node := tail
 while node ≠ null
     <do something with node.data>
     node := node.prev

These symmetric functions add a node either after or before a given node, with the diagram demonstrating after:

 function insertAfter(node, newNode)
     newNode.prev := node
     newNode.next := node.next
     if node.next = null
         tail := newNode
     else
         node.next.prev := newNode
     node.next := newNode
 function insertBefore(node, newNode)
     newNode.prev := node.prev
     newNode.next := node
     if node.prev is null
         head := newNode
     else
         node.prev.next := newNode
     node.prev    := newNode

We also need a function to insert a node at the beginning of a possibly-empty list:

 function insertBeginning(newNode)
     if head = null
         head := newNode
         tail := newNode
         newNode.prev := null
         newNode.next := null
     else
         insertBefore(head, newNode)

A symmetric function inserts at the end:

 function insertEnd(newNode)
     if tail = null
         insertBeginning(newNode)
     else
         insertAfter(tail, newNode)

Removing a node is easier, only requiring care with head and tail:

 function remove(node)
   if node.prev = null
       head = node.next
   else
       node.prev.next = node.next
 
   if node.next = null
       tail := node.prev
   else
       node.next.prev = node.prev
   destroy node

One subtle consequence of this procedure is that deleting the last element of a list sets both head and tail to null.

Circularly-linked lists

Circularly-linked lists can be either singly or doubly linked. In a circularly linked list, all nodes are linked in a continuous circle, without using null. For lists with a front and a back (such as a queue), one stores a reference to the last node in the list. The next node after the last node is the first node. Elements can be added to the back of the list and removed from the front in constant time.

Both types of circularly-linked lists benefit from the ability to traverse the full list beginning at any given node. This often allows us to avoid storing head and tail, although if the list may be empty we need a special representation for the empty list, such as a head variable which points to some node in the list or is null if it's empty; we use such a head here. This representation significantly simplifies adding and removing nodes with a non-empty list, but empty lists are then a special case.

Assuming that someNode is some node in a non-empty list, this code iterates through that list starting with someNode:

Forwards

 node := someNode
 do
     do something with node.value
     node := node.next
 while node ≠ someNode

Backwards

 node := someNode
 do
     do something with node.value
     node := node.prev
 while node ≠ someNode

Notice the postponing of the test to the end of the loop. This is important for the case where the list contains only the single node someNode.

This simple function inserts a node into a doubly-linked circularly linked list after a given element:

 function insertAfter(node, newNode)
     newNode.next := node.next
     newNode.prev := node
     node.next.prev := newNode
     node.next      := newNode

Inserting an element in a possibly empty list requires a special function:

 function insertBeginning(node)
     if head = null
         node.prev := node
         node.next := node
     else
         insertAfter(head.prev, node)
     head := node

Finally, removing a node must deal with the case where the list empties:

 function remove(node)
     if node.next = node
         head := null
     else
         node.next.prev := node.prev
         node.prev.next := node.next
     destroy node

Linked lists using arrays of nodes

Languages that do not support any type of reference can still create links by replacing pointers with array indices. The approach is to keep an array of records, where each record has integer fields indicating the index of the next (and possibly previous) node in the array. Not all nodes in the array need be used. If even records are not supported, parallel arrays can often be used instead.

As an example, consider the following linked list record that uses arrays instead of pointers:

 record Entry {
    integer next; // location of next entry in array
    integer prev; // previous entry (if double-linked)
    string Name;  // Name on account
    real balance; // Account balance
 }


By creating an array of these structures, and an integer variable to store the index of the head element, a linked list can be built:

integer listHead;
Entry Records[1000];

Links between elements are formed by placing the array index of the next (or previous) cell into the Next or Prev field within a given element. For example:

IndexNextPrevNameBalance
014Jones, John123.45
1-10Smith, Joseph234.56
24-1Adams, Adam0.00
3Ignore, Ignatius999.99
402Another, Anita876.54
5
6
7

In the above example, ListHead would be set to 4, the location of the first entry in the list. Notice that entry 3 and 5 through 7 are not part of the list. These cells are available for any additions to the list. By creating a ListFree integer variable, a free list could be created to keep track of what cells are available. If all entries are in use, the size of the array would have to be increased or some elements would have to be deleted before new entries can be stored in the list.

The following code would traverse the list and display names and account balance:

i := listHead; // start at beginning of list
while i >= 0 { '// loop through the list
     print i, Records[i].name, Records[i].balance // print entry
     i = Records[i].next; // next entry in list
}

When faced with a choice, the advantages of this approach include:

  • The linked list is relocatable, meaning it can be moved about in memory at will, and it can also be quickly and directly serialized for storage on disk or transfer over a network.
  • Especially for a small list, array indexes can occupy significantly less space than a full pointer on many architectures.
  • Locality of reference can be improved by keeping the nodes together in memory and by periodically rearranging them, although this can also be done in a general store.
  • Nave dynamic memory allocators can produce an excessive amount of overhead storage for each node allocated; almost no allocation overhead is incurred per node in this approach.
  • Seizing an entry from a pre-allocated array is faster than using dynamic memory allocation for each node, since dynamic memory allocation typically requires a search for a free memory block of the desired size.

This approach has one main disadvantage, however: it creates and manages a private memory space for its nodes. Not only does this increase complexity of the implementation, but growing it may be difficult or impossible, because it is large, whereas finding space for a new linked list node in a large, general memory pool is easier. This slow growth also affects algorithmic performance, as it causes a few insert operations to unexpectedly take linear (O(n)) instead of constant time (although it's still amortized constant). Using a general memory pool also leaves more memory for other data if the list is smaller than expected or if many nodes are freed. However, since this approach is mainly used for languages that do not support dynamic memory allocation, the block of memory is created at compile / load time, this is usually not an issue. These disadvantages are also mitigated if the maximum size of the list is known at the time the array is created.

Language support

Many programming languages such as Lisp and Scheme have singly linked lists built in. In many functional languages, these lists are constructed from nodes, each called a cons or cons cell. The cons has two fields: the car, a reference to the data for that node, and the cdr, a reference to the next node. Although cons cells can be used to build other data structures, this is their primary purpose.

In other languages, linked list are typically built using references together with records. Here is a complete example in C:

#include <stdio.h>   /* for printf */
#include <stdlib.h>  /* for malloc */

typedef struct ns {
	int data;
	struct ns *next;
} node;

node *list_add(node ** p, int i) {
    node *n = malloc(sizeof(*n));
    n->next = *p;
    *p = n;
    n->data = i;
    return n;
}

void list_remove(node ** p) {
    if (p) {
        node *n = *p;
	*p = (*p)->next;
	free(n);
    }
}

node **list_search(node ** n, int i) {
    if (!n) return NULL;
    while (*n) {
        if ((*n)->data == i) {
            return n;
        }
    n = &(*n)->next;
    }
    return NULL;
}

void list_print(node * n) {
    if (!n) printf("list is empty\n");
    while (n) {
        printf("print %p %p %i \n", n, n->next, n->data);
        n = n->next;
    }
}

int main(void) {
    node *n = NULL;

    list_add(&n, 0);
    list_add(&n, 1);
    list_add(&n, 2);
    list_add(&n, 3);
    list_add(&n, 4);
    list_print(n);
    list_remove(&n);            /* remove head */
    list_remove(&n->next);      /* remove second */
    list_remove(list_search(&n, 1));
    list_remove(&n->next);      /* remove tail */
    list_remove(&n);            /* remove last */
    list_print(n);

    return 0;
}

Internal and external storage

When constructing a linked list, one is faced with the choice of whether to store the data of the list directly in the linked list nodes, called internal storage, or to merely store a reference to the data, called external storage. Internal storage has the advantage of making access to the data more efficient, requiring less storage overall, having better locality of reference, and simplifying memory management for the list (its data is allocated and deallocated at the same time as the list nodes).

External storage, on the other hand, has the advantage of being more generic, in that the same data structure and machine code can be used for a linked list no matter what the size of the data is. It also makes it easy to place the same data in multiple linked lists. Note, however, that even with internal storage the same data can be placed in multiple lists, either by including multiple next references in the node data structure, or by having other linked lists store references to the nodes of the linked list containing the data.

A common misconception is that every list using internal storage requires a new set of functions to operate on the linked list, consuming more effort and code space than an approach using external storage. This is true with a nave approach, but as long as the next pointers are located in the same place in each record, it is possible to create a generic implementation of linked lists with internal storage that only needs to be supplied for each type of list a way of creating and destroying nodes.

Example

Suppose you wanted to create a linked list of families and their members. Using internal storage, the structure might look like the following:

 record member { // structure for a member of a family
     member next // pointer to other members of family
     string fname // first name
     integer age // age of member
 }
 record family { // structure for the family itself
     family next // pointer to other families
     string lname // last name of family
     string address // address of family
     string phone // phone number of family
     member members // pointer to list of members of family
 }

To print a complete list of families and their members using internal storage, we could write:

 aFamily := Families // start at head of list
 while aFamily ≠ null { // loop through list of families
     print information about family
     aMember := aFamily.members // get list of family members
     while aMember ≠ null { // loop through list of members
         print information about member
         aMember := aMember.next // go to next member
     }
     aFamily := aFamily.next // go to next family
 }

Using external storage, we would create the following structures:

 record node { // generic link structure
     node next // pointer to next node
     pointer data // generic pointer for data at node
 }
 record member { // structure for family member
     string fname // first name
     integer age // age of member
 }
 record family { // structure for family
     string lname // last name of family
     string address // address of family
     string phone // phone number of family
     node members // pointer to list of members of family
 }

To print a complete list of families and their members using external storage, we could write:

 famNode := Families // start at head of list
 while famNode ≠ null { // loop through list of families
     aFamily = (family)famNode.data // extract family from node
     print information about family
     memNode := aFamily.members // get list of family members
     while memNode ≠ null { // loop through list of members
         aMember := (member)memNode.data // extract member from node
         print information about member
         memNode := memNode.next // get next family member
     }
     famNode := famNode.next // get next family in list
 }

Notice that when using external storage, an extra step is needed to extract the record from the node and cast it into the proper data type.

Related data structures

The skip list is a linked list augmented with layers of pointers for quickly jumping over large numbers of elements, and then descending to the next layer. This process continues down to the bottom layer, which is the actual list.

A binary tree can be seen as a type of linked list where the elements are themselves linked lists of the same nature. The result is that each node may include a reference to the head node of one or two other linked lists, which, together with their contents, form the subtrees below that node.

An unrolled linked list is a linked list in which each node contains an array of data values. This leads to improved cache performance, since more list elements are contiguous in memory, and reduced memory overhead, because less metadata needs to be stored for each element of the list.

A hash table may use linked lists to store the chains of items that hash to the same position in the hash table.

References

  • National Institute of Standards and Technology (August 16, 2004). Definition of a linked list (http://nist.gov/dads/HTML/linkedList.html). Retrieved December 14, 2004.
  • Antonakos, James L. and Mansfield, Kenneth C., Jr. Practical Data Structures Using C/C++ (1999). Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-280843-9, pp. 165–190
  • Collins, William J. Data Structures and the Java Collections Framework (2002,2005) New York, NY: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-282379-8, pp. 239–303
  • Cormen, Thomas H.; Leiserson, Charles E.; Rivest, Ronald L.; Stein, Clifford Introductions to Algorithms (2003). MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-03293-7, pp. 205–213, 501–505
  • Green, Bert F. Jr. (1961). Computer Languages for Symbol Manipulation. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics. 2 pp. 3-8.
  • McCarthy, John (1960). Recursive Functions of Symbolic Expressions and Their Computation by Machine, Part I. Communications of the ACM. [1] (http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/recursive.html) HTML (http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/recursive/recursive.html) DVI (http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/recursive.dvi) PDF (http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/recursive.pdf) PostScript (http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/recursive.ps)
  • Newell, Allen and Shaw, F. C. (1957). Programming the Logic Theory Machine. Proceedings of the Western Joint Computer Conference. pp. 230-240.
  • Parlante, Nick (2001). Linked list basics. Stanford University. PDF (http://cslibrary.stanford.edu/103/LinkedListBasics.pdf)
  • Sedgewick, Robert Algorithms in C (1998). Addison Wesley. ISBN 0-201-31452-5, pp. 90–109
  • Shaffer, Clifford A. A Practical Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis (1998). NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-660911-2, pp. 77–102
  • Wilkes, Maurice Vincent (1964). An Experiment with a Self-compiling Compiler for a Simple List-Processing Language. Annual Review in Automatic Programming 4, 1. Published by Pergamon Press.
  • Wilkes, Maurice Vincent (1964). Lists and Why They are Useful. Proceeds of the ACM National Conference, Philadelphia 1964 (ACM Publication P-64 page F1-1); Also Computer Journal 7, 278 (1965).
  • Kulesh Shanmugasundaram (April 4, 2005). Linux Kernel Linked List Explained (http://isis.poly.edu/kulesh/stuff/src/klist/).

External links

fr:Liste hu:Lncolt lista ja:線形リスト ko:연결 리스트 lt:Tiesinis sąraas uk:Зв'язаний список zh:链表

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