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Kentucky Derby

From Academic Kids

The Kentucky Derby is a stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses, staged yearly in Louisville, Kentucky on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. The race currently covers one and one-quarter miles (2.012 km) at Churchill Downs; colts and geldings carry 126 pounds (57 kg), fillies 121 (55). The race, known as "The Most Exciting Two Minutes in Sports" for its approximate time length, is the first leg of the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing in the United States. It typically draws around 155,000 fans.

Contents

Traditions

In addition to the race itself, a number of traditions have played a large role in the Derby atmosphere. The Mint Julep, an iced drink consisting of bourbon, mint and sugar, is the traditional beverage of the race. Legal gambling on the race is done through parimutuel betting at the track. The infield, a spectator area inside the track, offers low general admission prices but little chance of seeing much of the race. Instead, revelers show up in the infield to party. By contrast, "Millionaire's Row" refers to the expensive box seats that attract the rich and famous. Elegant women appear in long dresses, big hats, and carrying fancy umbrellas. As the horses are paraded before the grandstands, "My Old Kentucky Home" is played by the University of Louisville marching band while the crowd stands and sings along.

The Derby is frequently referred to as "The Run for the Roses," because a garland of red roses is awarded to the Kentucky Derby winner each year. The tradition is as a result of New York socialite E. Berry Wall presenting roses to ladies at a post-Derby party in 1883 that was attended by Churchill Downs president, Col. M. Lewis Clark. This gesture is believed to have eventually led Clark to the idea of making the rose the race's official flower. However, it was not until 1896 that any recorded account referred to roses being draped on the Derby winner. The governor of Kentucky awards the garland and the trophy.

History

Organized horse racing in the State of Kentucky dates as far back as the late 1700s when several different race courses were built in and around the city of Louisville. In 1872, Col. M. Lewis Clark, traveled to England, visiting the Epsom Derby, a famous race that had been running annually since 1780. From there, Clark went on to Paris, France, where in 1863 a group of racing enthusiasts had formed the French Jockey Club and had organized the Grand Prix de Paris, which eventually became the famous Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe.

Returning home to Kentucky, Clark organized the Louisville Jockey Club for the purpose of raising money to build quality racing facilities just outside of the city. The track would soon become known as Churchill Downs, named for Lewis Clark's relatives, John and Henry Churchill, who had provided the land for the racetrack. Officially, the racetrack was incorporated as Churchill Downs in 1937.

The Kentucky Derby was first run at 1½ miles, the same distance as the Epsom Derby and the Grand Prix de Paris. In 1896 the distance was changed to its current 1¼ miles. On May 17, 1875, in front of an estimated crowd of 10,000 people, a field of 15 three-year-old horses contested the first Derby. Under African-American jockey Oliver Lewis, a colt named Aristides who was trained by future Hall of Famer, Ansel Williamson, won the inaugural Derby. Later that year, Lewis rode Aristides to a second-place finish in the Belmont Stakes.

Missing image
Churchill_Downs_1901.jpg
Churchill Downs in 1901

Although the first race meet proved a success, the track ran into financial difficulties and in 1894 the New Louisville Jockey Club was incorporated with new capitalization and improved facilities. Despite this, the business floundered until 1902 when Col. Matt Winn of Louisville put together a syndicate of businessmen to acquire the facility. Under Winn, Churchill Downs prospered and the Kentucky Derby became the preeminent thoroughbred horse race in America.

Between 1875 and 1902, African-American jockeys won 15 of the 28 runnings of the Kentucky Derby. On May 11, 1892, African-American jockey Alonzo "Lonnie" Clayton, age 15, became the youngest rider to win the Derby. The 1904 race was won by Elwood, the first Derby starter and winner to be owned by a woman, Laska Durnell. In 1917, the English bred colt "Omar Khayyam" became the first foreign-bred horse to win the Derby.

As part of gaining income, horse owners began sending their successful Derby horses to compete a few weeks later in the Preakness Stakes at the Pimlico Race Course, in Baltimore, Maryland, followed by the Belmont Stakes in Elmont, New York. The three races offered the largest purse and in 1919 Sir Barton became the first horse to win all three races. However, the term Triple Crown didn't come into use until for another eleven years. In 1930, when Gallant Fox became the second horse to win all three races, sportswriter Charles Hatton brought the phrase into American usage. Fueled by the media, public interest in the possibility of a "superhorse" that could win the Triple Crown began in the weeks leading up to the Derby. Two years after the term was coined, the race, which had been run in mid-May since inception, was changed to the first Saturday in May to allow for a specific schedule for the Triple Crown races.

On May 3, 1952, the first national television coverage of the Kentucky Derby took place. In 1954, the purse exceeded $100,000 for the first time. Set by the great Secretariat in 1973, the fastest time ever run in the Derby (at its present distance) is 1 minute 59 2/5 seconds.

The 2004 Derby marked the first time that jockeys, as a result of a court order, were allowed to wear corporate advertising logos on their clothing.

In 2005, the purse distribution for the Derby was changed, so that horses finishing fifth would henceforth receive a share of the purse; previously only the first four finishers did so.

Winners of the Kentucky Derby

Year Winner Jockey Trainer Time
2005 Giacomo Mike Smith John Shirreffs 2:02.75
2004 Smarty Jones Stewart Elliott John Servis 2:04.06
2003 Funny Cide Jos Santos Barclay Tagg 2:01.19
2002 War Emblem Victor Espinoza Bob Baffert 2:01.13
2001 Monarchos Jorge Chavez John Ward Jr. 1:59.97
2000 Fusaichi Pegasus Kent Desormeaux Neil Drysdale 2:01
1999 Charismatic Chris Antley D. Wayne Lukas 2:03 1/5
1998 Real Quiet Kent Desormeaux Bob Baffert 2:02 1/5
1997 Silver Charm Gary Stevens Bob Baffert 2:02 2/5
1996 Grindstone Jerry Bailey D. Wayne Lukas 2:01
1995 Thunder Gulch Gary Stevens D. Wayne Lukas 2:01 1/5
1994 Go for Gin Chris McCarron Nick Zito 2:03 3/5
1993 Sea Hero Jerry Bailey Mack Miller 2:02 2/5
1992 Lil E. Tee Pat Day Lynn Whiting 2:03
1991 Strike the Gold Chris Antley Nick Zito 2:03
1990 Unbridled Craig Perret Carl Nafzger 2:02
1989 Sunday Silence Pat Valenzuela Charles Whittingham 2:05
1988 Winning Colors Gary Stevens D. Wayne Lukas 2:02 1/5
1987 Alysheba Chris McCarron Jack Van Berg 2:03 2/5
1986 Ferdinand Bill Shoemaker Charles Whittingham 2:02 4/5
1985 Spend a Buck Angel Cordero, Jr. Cam Gambolati 2:00 1/5
1984 Swale Laffit Pincay, Jr. Woody Stephens 2:02 2/5
1983 Sunny’s Halo Eddie Delahoussaye David Cross Jr. 2:02 1/5
1982 Gato Del Sol Eddie Delahoussaye Eddie Gregson 2:02 2/5
1981 Pleasant Colony Jorge Velasquez John Campo 2:02
1980 Genuine Risk Jacinto Vasquez LeRoy Jolley 2:02
1979 Spectacular Bid Ron Franklin Bud Delp 2:02 2/5
1978 AffirmedSteve Cauthen Laz Barrera 2:01 1/5
1977 Seattle SlewJean Cruguet Billy Turner 2:02 1/5
1976 Bold Forbes Angel Cordero, Jr. Laz Barrera 2:01 3/5
1975 Foolish Pleasure Jacinto Vasquez LeRoy Jolley 2:02
1974 Cannonade Angel Cordero, Jr. Woody Stephens 2:04
1973 SecretariatRon Turcotte Lucien Laurin 1:59 2/5
1972 Riva Ridge Ron Turcotte Lucien Laurin 2:01 4/5
1971 Canonero II Gustavo Avila Juan Arias 2:03 1/5
1970 Dust Commander Mike Manganello Don Combs 2:03 2/5
1969 Majestic Prince Bill Hartack Johnny Longden 2:01 4/5
1968 Forward Pass Ismael Valenzuela Henry Forrest 2:02 1/5
1967 Proud Clarion Bobby Ussery Loyd Gentry 2:00 3/5
1966 Kauai King Don Brumfield Henry Forrest 2:02
1965 Lucky Debonair Bill Shoemaker Frank Catrone 2:01 1/5
1964 Northern Dancer Bill Hartack Horatio Luro 2:00
1963 Chateaugay Braulio Baeza James Conway 2:01 4/5
1962 Decidedly Bill Hartack Horatio Luro 2:00 2/5
1961 Carry Back John Sellers Jack Price 2:04
1960 Venetian Way Bill Hartack Victor Sovinski 2:02 2/5
1959 Tomy Lee Bill Shoemaker Frank Childs 2:02 1/5
1958 Tim Tam Ismael Valenzuela Horace A. "Jimmy" Jones 2:05
1957 Iron Liege Bill Hartack Horace A. "Jimmy" Jones 2:02 1/5
1956 Needles David Erb Hugh Fontaine 2:03 2/5
1955 Swaps Bill Shoemaker Mesh Tenney 2:01 4/5
1954 Determine Raymond York Willie Molter 2:03
1953 Dark Star Hank Moreno Eddie Hayward 2:02
1952 Hill Gail Eddie Arcaro Ben A. Jones 2:01 3/5
1951 Count Turf Conn McCreary Sol Rutchick 2:02 3/5
1950 Middleground William Boland Max Hirsch 2:01 3/5
1949 Ponder Steve Brooks Ben A. Jones 2:04 1/5
1948 CitationEddie Arcaro Ben A. Jones 2:05 2/5
1947 Jet Pilot Eric Guerin Tom Smith 2:06 4/5
1946 AssaultWarren Mehrtens Max Hirsch 2:06 3/5
1945 Hoop Jr Eddie Arcaro Ivan Parke 2:07
1944 Pensive Conn McCreary Ben A. Jones 2:04 1/5
1943 Count FleetJohnny Longden Don Cameron 2:04
1942 Shut Out Wayne Wright John M. Gaver 2:04 2/5
1941 WhirlawayEddie Arcaro Ben A. Jones 2:01 2/5
1940 Gallahadion Carroll Bierman Roy Waldron 2:05
1939 Johnstown James Stout Sunny Jim Fitzsimmons 2:03 2/5
1938 Lawrin Eddie Arcaro Ben A. Jones 2:04 4/5
1937 War AdmiralCharley Kurtsinger George Conway 2:03 1/5
1936 Bold Venture Ira Hanford Max Hirsch 2:03 3/5
1935 OmahaWillie Saunders Sunny Jim Fitzsimmons 2:05
1934 Cavalcade Mack Garner Bob Smith 2:04
1933 Brokers Tip Don Meade Henry J. "Dick" Thompson 2:06 4/5
1932 Burgoo King Eugene James Henry J. "Dick" Thompson 2:05 1/5
1931 Twenty Grand Charley Kurtsinger James Rowe, Jr. 2:01 4/5
1930 Gallant FoxEarl Sande Sunny Jim Fitzsimmons 2:07 3/5
1929 Clyde Van Dusen Linus McAtee Clyde Van Dusen 2:10 4/5
1928 Reigh Count Chick Lang Bert Micchell 2:10 2/5
1927 Whiskery Linus McAtee Fred Hopkins 2:06
1926 Bubbling Over Albert Johnson Henry J. "Dick" Thompson 2:03 4/5
1925 Flying Ebony Earl Sande William Duke 2:07 3/5
1924 Black Gold John Mooney Hanley Webb 2:05 1/5
1923 Zev Earl Sande David Leary 2:05 2/5
1922 Morvich Albert Johnson Fred Burlew 2:04 3/5
1921 Behave Yourself Charles Thompson Henry J. "Dick" Thompson 2:04 1/5
1920 Paul Jones Ted Rice Billy Garth 2:09
1919 Sir BartonJohnny Loftus H. Guy Bedwell 2:09 4/5
1918 Exterminator William Knapp Henry McDaniel 2:10 4/5
1917 Omar Khayyam Charles Borel C.T. Patterson 2:04 3/5
1916 George Smith Johnny Loftus Hollie Hughes 2:04
1915 Regret Joe Notter James Rowe, Sr. 2:05 2/5
1914 Old Rosebud John McCabe F. D. Weir 2:03 2/5
1913 Donerail Roscoe Goose Thomas Hayes 2:04 4/5
1912 Worth Carol Shilling Frank Taylor 2:09 2/5
1911 Meridian George Archibald Albert Ewing 2:05
1910 Donau Fred Herbert George Ham 2:06 2/5
1909 Wintergreen Vincent Powers Charles Mack 2:08 1/5
1908 Stone Street Arthur Pickens J. W. Hall 2:15 1/5
1907 Pink Star Andy Minder W. H. Fizer 2:12 3/5
1906 Sir Huon Roscoe Troxler Pete Coyne 2:08 4/5
1905 Agile Jack Martin Robert Tucker 2:10 3/4
1904 Elwood Shorty Prior C. E. Durnell 2:08 1/2
1903 Judge Himes Hal Booker J. P. Mayberry 2:09
1902 Alan-a-Dale Jimmy Winkfield T. C. McDowell 2:08 3/4
1901 His Eminence Jimmy Winkfield F. P. Van Meter 2:07 3/4
1900 Lieut. Gibson Jimmy Boland Charles Hughes 2:06 1/4
1899 Manuel Fred Taral Robert Walden 2:12
1898 Plaudit Willie Simms John E. Madden 2:09
1897 Typhoon II Buttons Garner J. C. Cahn 2:12 1/2
1896 Ben Brush Willie Simms Hardy Campbell 2:07 3/4
1895 Halma Soup Perkins Byron McClelland 2:37 1/2
1894 Chant Frank Goodale Eugene Leigh 2:41
1893 Lookout E. Kunze William McDaniel 2:39 1/4
1892 Azra Lonnie Clayton John Morris 2:41 1/2
1891 Kingman Isaac Murphy Dud Allen 2:52 1/4
1890 Riley Isaac Murphy Edward Corrigan 2:45
1889 Spokane Thomas Kiley John Rodegap 2:34 1/2
1888 Macbeth II George Covington John Campbell 2:38
1887 Montrose Isaac Lewis John McGinty 2:39 1/4
1886 Ben Ali Paul Duffy Jim Murphy 2:36 1/2
1885 Joe Cotton Babe Henderson Alex Perry 2:37 1/4
1884 Buchanan Isaac Murphy William Bird 2:40 1/4
1883 Leonatus Billy Donohue John McGinty 2:43
1882 Apollo Babe Hurd Green Morris 2:40
1881 Hindoo Jim McLaughlin James Rowe, Sr. 2:40
1880 Fonso George Lewis Tice Hutsell 2:37 1/2
1879 Lord Murphy Charlie Shauer George Rice 2:37
1878 Day Star Jimmy Carter Lee Paul 2:37 1/4
1877 Baden Baden Billy Walker Ed Brown (aka "Dick") 2:38
1876 Vagrant Bobby Swim James Williams 2:38 1/4
1875 Aristides Oliver Lewis Ansel Williamson 2:37 3/4

A † designates a Triple Crown Winner
Note: In 1968, Dancer's Image finished first, but was disqualified after a post-race urine sample revealed traces of a banned drug in the horse. The drug in question - phenylbutazone - is now legal for use on racehorses in many states, including Kentucky.

See also

External links

Adapted from the article Kentucky Derby (http://www.wikinfo.org/wiki.phtml?title=Kentucky_Derby), from Wikinfo, licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

Template:Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing

ja:ケンタッキーダービー eo:Kentukia Ĉevalvetkuro de:Kentucky Derby

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