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Jeju

From Academic Kids

Template:Infobox Korean province Jeju is the smallest province of South Korea, situated on its largest island. Jeju is located in the Korea Strait, southwest of South Jeolla Province, which it was a part of until it became a separate province in 1946. Its capital is Jeju City.

Contents

Names

In Korean, the word do means both "island" and "province," although each has its own Chinese character. Thus, Jejudo or Jeju-do can refer to either the island or the government administrative unit. The table below also includes the name of Jeju City, the provincial capital.

English Name Korean Name Hangul Hanja
Jeju Island Jeju-do 제주도 濟州島
Jeju Province Jeju-do 제주도 濟州道
Jeju City Jeju-si 제주시 濟州市

Historically, the island has been called by many different names including:

  • Doi (도이, 島夷)
  • Dongyeongju (동영주, 東瀛州)
  • Juho (주호, 州胡)
  • Tammora (탐모라, 耽牟羅)
  • Seopra (섭라, 涉羅)
  • Takra (탁라, 竣羅)
  • Tamra (탐라, 耽羅)

Before the year 2000, when the Seoul government changed the official Romanization of Hangul (the Korean alphabet), Jeju was spelled "Cheju". Almost all written references to the island before 2000 use that spelling. In fact, the correct pronunciation is "che-ju", but Koreans hearing a foreigner say "je-ju" will recognize the name.

Natural History

Jeju Island—formerly known to Europeans as Quelpart—is a volcanic island, dominated by Halla-san, a volcano 1,950 m high; the highest mountain in South Korea.

The island was created entirely from volcanic eruptions hundreds of millions of years ago, and consists chiefly of basalt and lava. The climate is subtropical, warmer than the rest of Korea, yet with four distinct seasons. Half the summer is rainy; winter is fairly dry.

History

Jeju was an independent country called Tamna (耽羅) until it became a protectorate of Silla in 662. In 938, after the fall of Silla, Tamna became a protectorate of Goryeo. In 1105 Tamna lost its autonomy and became a province of Goryeo. It was King Euijong of Goryeo who changed the island's name from Tamna to Jeju.

In 1271, Jeju became the base of the Sambyeolcho Rebellion against the Mongols. After Sambyeolcho was defeated in 1273, Mongols put Jeju under direct rule, and it became Goryeo territory again in 1367.

When Korea was colonized by Japan in 1910, Jeju became known as Saishu, which is the Japanese reading of the Hanja for Jeju. After the defeat of the Japanese, Jeju became an official part of the new Republic of Korea. In an incident known as the Cheju April 3rd Massacre, 20,000 people were killed. The cause of this event is still disputed.

Jeju was then a part of Jeolla until 1946, when it became a province of its own. It should be noted that the population of Jeju started an uprising against the Korean government between 1946 to 1948, and approximately 30,000 of the island's population were killed during the uprising. The uprising began in a bid to gain independence from mainland Korea, but the Korean government eventually managed to quell the uprising. [1] (http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/opinion/200505/kt2005051216160454130.htm)

Historically, the people of Jeju Island have been the victim of discrimination due to its location and isolation. The history of Jeju has been completely censored in Korean history books and textbooks.

Society and Culture

Missing image
Korea_jeju_harubang.jpg
Harubang

Because of the relative isolation of the island, the people of Jeju Island have developed a culture that is distinct from that of mainland Korea. Jeju is home to literally thousands of local legends. Perhaps the most distinct cultural artifact is the ubiquitous harubang "stone grandfather," carved from a block of lava.

Administrative divisions

Jeju Province is divided into two cities ("Si" or "Shi") and two counties ("Gun"). The two cities are further divided into 31 neighbourhoods ("Dong"), while the two counties are divided into seven towns ("Eup") and five districts ("Myeon"). The seven towns and five districts are in turn divided 551 villages ("Ri").

Listed below are the English, Hangul, and Hanja names of the province's two cities and two counties.

Cities

Counties

Symbols

Sister Provinces

Jeju's international sister provinces are also islands: Hainan Province (People's Republic of China), Hawaii (US), Sakhalin (Russia), and Bali (Indonesia).

Missing image
Halasan.jpg
Crater lakes on Jeju

Power Supply

The powergrid of Jeju Island is connected to the mainland by the HVDC Haenam-Cheju.

See Also

External links


Administrative divisions of South Korea Flag of South Korea
Special City
Seoul
Metropolitan Cities
Busan | Daegu | Daejeon | Gwangju | Incheon | Ulsan
Provinces
North Chungcheong | South Chungcheong | Gangwon | Gyeonggi | North Gyeongsang | South Gyeongsang | Jeju | North Jeolla | South Jeolla
de:Jeju

et:Jeju fr:Jeju-do ja:済州道 ko:제주도 pl:Jeju (wyspa) pt:Jeju zh:济州道

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