History of South India

From Academic Kids

The history of south Indian people is associated from the beginning of the Sangam age, from 200 BC to 300 AD. It is called so after the sangam literature. There were several rulers and dynasties significant in South Indian history. These included the Cholas, Pandyas, Pallavas, Cheras, and the Chalukyas.

Ancient history

The Cheras are an ancient clan who are mentioned in the edicts of Ashoka in Mysore, Karnataka. It refers to the Cheras as Keralaputras. The Cheras ruled from Alleppy to Calicut, in present day Kerala. The early kingdom of the Pandyan clan during 1st century A.D. consisted of the greater part of modern Madura and Tinnevelly, with their capital situated at Kolkoi.

One of the most prominent kings of the Chalukyan dynasty was Pulakesin-I. He ruled from Badami, the present day Bijapur, in Karnataka. His son Pulakesi –II became the king of the western Chalukyan empire in 610 AD and ruled till 642 AD. Pulakeshin II is most remembered for the fiery battle he fought and won against the North Indian Emperor Harshavardhana in 637 AD. He also defeated Pallava king Mahendra Varman I. Pallavas, had their capital located at Pallavapuri in Andhra Pradesh. They reigned around 1st and 2nd century AD. Mahendravarman was a prominent pallava king who began work on the cave temple of Mahabalipuram. His son Narasimhavarman came to throne in 630 A.D. He defeated his arch enemy king Pulakeshin II in the year 632 AD and burned the chalukyan capital at Badami, in Karnataka. Vinayaditya Hoysala began ruling the western region of Gangavadi. He formed the Hoysala dynasty, and ruled the kingdom for over fifty years. His grandson Ballala-I reigned from his capital at Belur. Vishnuvardhana Hoysala (1106 - 1152) conquered the Nolamba region earning the title Nolambavadi Gonda.

King Vijayalaya founded the Chola dynasty in 850 A.D. He made Tanjore his capital. His son Aditya-I defeated the Pallava king Aparajita. He also defeated the Kongu ruler Parantaka Viranarayana. The centers of the Chola Kingdom were at Kanchi (Kanchipuram) and Thanjavur (Tanjore). One of the most powerful ruler of the Chola kingdom was Raja Raja Chola. He ruled from 985 - 1014 AD. His army conquered the Navy of the Cheras at Thiruvananthapuram, and annexed Anuradhapuram and the northern province of Ceylon. Rajendra-I completed the conquest of Sri Lanka, invaded Bengal, and undertook a great naval campaign that occupied parts of Malaya, Burma, and Sumatra. The Chola dynasty began declining by the 13th century and ended in 1279.

Medieval history

The Vijayanagara Empire lasted for almost 200 years. It was visited and recorded by the Persian scholar Abdur Razzaq. The capital was at Vijayanagara on the banks of Tungabhadra river. King Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagara was a great patron of art and literature and an accomplished poet himself in Telugu. The Hampi ruins are scattered over an area of fourteen square miles.

Modern history

South India during the British colonial rule was under the Madras presidency and Mysore and Hyderabad states. This was a conglomeration of the kingdoms of the southern region of the Indian subcontinent. After the Independence of the subcontinent from the British rule, the madras presidency was divided on linguistic terms. The present states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil nadu and Kerala were formed.

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