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Hamadan

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 Ganj nameh,  inscriptions (5th century BC)
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Ganj nameh, Darius the Great inscriptions (5th century BC)
This page is about city of Hamedan. For the province with this name, see Hamadan province.

Hamadan or Hamedan (همدان in Persian) is capital city of Hamadan province of Iran.

Hamadan is believed to be the oldest Iranian (Persian) city and one the oldest in the world.

Hamadan is a green mountainous area on the foothills of the 3574-meter Alvand Mountain,in the middle west of Iran.The city is 1850 meters above sea level.

The special nature of this old city and its historic sites, attracts tourists during summers to this city, located approximately 400km southwest of Tehran.

Contents

History

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Avicenna's(Bu_Ali_Sina)_tomb_Hamedan.jpg
Avicenna's (Abu Ali Sina) tomb

Hamadan has a distinguished place among all historical cities of Iran.Some historians believe that Hamadan's construction dates back to 3000 BC and according to an inscribtion from first Assyrian king , it is attributed to 1100 BC.

Hamadan was one of the multiple capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty and it has been referred to by several name variations throughout its long history, namely: Hagmatana (Old Persian), Ecbatana (classical Greek rendition of Hagmatana) and several corruptions or mispronounciations of the previous two in subsequent centuries. Hagmatana is thought to have been the capital city of Media. The name Hagmatana is directly derived from Old Persian.

During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon was the capital of the country, and Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 633 the war of Nahavand took place and Hamadan came into the hands of the invading muslim arabs, at times it thrived and at times witnessed poverty.

During the Buwayhids , it suffered plenty of damages. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad to Hamadan.

The city of Hamadan which was always assaulted by the rise and fall of powers, was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasion. During the Safavid era the city thrived. Thereafter, in the year 18th century, Hamadan was surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the courage and chivalry of Nadir Shah Afshar, Hamadan was cleared off the invaders and according to the peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans , it was returned to Iran. The city of Hamadan lay on the Silk Road and even in the last centuries enjoyed good prospects in commerce and trade being on the main road network in the western region of the country.

Climate

Hamadan province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east of Zagros. The vast plains of the north and northeast of the province are influenced by strong winds, that almost last throughout the year. The various air currents of this region are: the north and north west winds of the spring and winter seasons, which are usually humid and bring about rainfall. The west-east air currents that blow in the autumn, and the local winds that develop due to difference in air-pressure between the elevated areas and the plains, like the blind wind of the Asad Abad region. Hamadan being in the vicinity of the Alvand mountains has a cold, mountainous climate, with snowy winters.Infact it is one of the coldest cities in the Iran.Temperature may drop below -30 C in the coldest days.Heavy snowfalls are common during winter. Summer is short , and the weather is mild and pleasant and mostly sunny.

Culture

Hamadan is also home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is also said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.

Handicrafts: Hamadan has always been well-known for handicrafts like leather and ceramic work as well as for its beautiful carpets.

Attractions

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Hamadan_rug.jpg
An example of the famous Hamadan rug

Hamadan is the birthplace of Shirin Ebadi, winner of the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize.

Colleges and Universities

See also

External links

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