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Guangxi

From Academic Kids

Zhuang:Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigi
Chinese:广西壮族自治区
Guǎngxī Zhungz Zzhqū
Abbreviation: 桂 (pinyin: Gu)
Guangxi is highlighted on this map
Origin of Name 广 guǎng - region name
西 xī - west
"western Guang"
Administration Type Autonomous region
Capital and
Largest City
Nanning
CPC Guangxi Committee Secretary Cao Bochun
Chairman Lu Bing
Area 236,700 km² (9th)
Population (2002)
 - Density
48,220,000 (10th)
204/km² (20th)
GDP (2003)
 - per capita
273.5 billion (17th)
5092 (29th)
Major Nationalities (2000) Han - 62%
Zhuang - 32%
Yao - 3%
Miao - 1%
Dong - 0.7%
Gelao - 0.4%
Prefecture-level divisions 14
County-level divisions 109
Township-level divisions 1396
ISO 3166-2 CN-45

Guangxi (Template:Zh-stpw; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi; Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigi or (old orthography) Gvaŋзsiƅ Bouчcueŋƅ Sɯcigi) is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. Its formal name is the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

"Guang" itself means "expanse", and was associated with the region from the Western Jin Dynasty onwards. "Guangxi" and neighbouring Guangdong literally mean "Guang West" and "Guang East". Together, Guangdong and Guangxi are called the "Two Guangs" (兩廣 liăng guăng).

The abbreviation of the province is 桂 (Gui), which comes from Guilin, a major city in the autonomous region.

Contents

History

The region officially became part of China in 214 BC, when the army of the Qin Dynasty claimed most of southern China. The name "Guangxi" can be traced to the Song Dynasty, which administered the area as a circuit called the Guangnanxi Circuit (literally "Guang-South West Circuit"). During the late Mongol Yuan Dynasty the name was revived again to name a province in the region, but it was shortened to "Guangxi", or "Guang-West". For the next six centuries, Guangxi was a province of China, until its conversion into an autonomous region by the People's Republic of China.

During the late Qing Dynasty, Guangxi was the site of the Jintian Uprising (金田起義), which occurred what is now Guiping county-level city in eastern Guangxi on January 11, 1851. On March 23, 1885, Zhennan Pass (now Youyi Pass) on the border with Vietnam was also the site of the Battle of Zhennan Pass (鎮南關戰役) during the Franco-Chinese War. During the battle, a French incursion was routed by Chinese forces under Feng Zicai (馮子才), an event that has been exalted by subsequent Chinese nationalism.

After the founding of the Republic of China, Guangxi served as the base for one of the most powerful warlord cliques of China: the Old Guangxi Clique. Led by Lu Jung-t'ing (陸榮廷) and others, the clique was able to take control of neighbouring Hunan and Guangdong provinces as well. The Old Guangxi Clique crumbled in the early 1920s, and was replaced by the New Guangxi Clique, led by Li Tsung-jen and Pai Ch'ung-hsi. Guangxi is also noted for the Baise Uprising (百色起義), a communist uprising led by Deng Xiaoping in 1929. Communist base areas were set up, though eventually they were destroyed by Kuomintang forces.

In 1944 near the end of World War II, Japan invaded Guangxi as part of Operation Ichigo (also known as the Henan-Hunan-Guangxi Campaign), in an attempt to seize the Hunan-Guangxi railway line and open up a land link to French Indochina. The Japanese succeeded, and most major cities in Guangxi came under Japanese occupation.

Being in the far south, Guangxi was conquered by communist forces rather late. The province changed hands in December 1949, two months after the founding of the people's republic. In 1958, Guangxi was converted into an autonomous region for the Zhuang, by recommendation of Premier Zhou Enlai. This decision was made because the Zhuang were one of the biggest minority groups in China, and were mostly concentrated in Guangxi; however, they form a minority of Guangxi's population.

For most of its history, Guangxi was landlocked. In 1952 a small section of Guangdong's coastline was given to Guangxi, giving it access to the sea. This was reversed in 1955, and reversed back in 1965.

Administrative divisions

Guangxi is divided into 14 prefecture-level cities: Nanning, Guilin, Liuzhou, Wuzhou, Guigang, Yulin, Qinzhou, Beihai, Fangchenggang, Chongzuo, Baise, Hechi, Laibin, and Hezhou. These are subdivided into 56 counties, 34 districts, 12 ethnic autonomous counties and 7 county-level cities.

Geography

Located in the southern part of the country, Guangxi is bordered by Yunnan to the west, Guizhou to the north, Hunan to the northeast, and Guangdong to the southeast. It is also bounded by Vietnam in the southwest and the Gulf of Tonkin in the south.

Guangxi is a mountainous region. The Nanling Mountains are found in the northeast border, with the Yuecheng Mountains (越城岭) and Haiyang Mountains (海洋山) being shorter branching ridges. Nearer to the center of the region there are the Dayao Mountains (大瑶山) and the Daming Mountains (大明山). To the north there are the Duyao Mountains (都阳山) and the Fenghuang Mountains (凤凰山), while on the southeast border there are the Yunkai Mountains (云开大山). The highest point is Mount Mao'er (猫儿山) located in the Yuecheng Mountains, at 2141 m.

Many rivers cut valleys through the mountains. Most of these rivers from the tributary basin of the West River:

Xijiang System (italics indicates rivers outside Guangxi)
Hejiang River (贺江) Xijiang River (西江)
Lijiang River (漓江) Guijiang River (桂江)
Beipan River (北盘江) Hongshui River (红水河) Qianjiang River (黔江) Xunjiang River (浔江)
Nanpan River (南盘江)
Rongjiang River (融江) Liujiang River (柳江)
Longjiang River (龙江)
Youjiang River (右江) Yongjiang River (邕江) Yujiang River (郁江)
Zuojiang River (左江)

Guangxi has a short coastline on the Bay of Tonkin. Important ports include Beihai, Qinzhou and Fangchenggang.

Guangxi has a subtropical climate. Summers are generally long and hot. Average annual temperature is 17 - 23 C, while average annual precipitation is 1250 - 1750 mm.

Major cities include: Nanning, Beihai, Guilin, Liuzhou.

Notable towns include: Longmen, Sanjiang, Yangshuo.

Economy

Important crops in Guangxi include rice, maize, sweet potatoes and wheat. Cash crops include sugar cane, peanuts, tobacco, and kenaf.

Guangxi has more tin, manganese, and indium deposits than any other province or equivalent of China.

In recent years Guangxi's economy has languished behind that of its wealthy neighbour and twin, the province of Guangdong.

Guangxi's 2003 nominal GDP was about 33 billion USD and ranks 17.

Demographics

The region has a high concentration of Zhuang, one of the major minority ethnicities of China. Over 90% of Zhuang in China live in Guangxi, especially in the central and western regions. There is also a significant number of both Dong and Miao minority peoples. Other ethnic groups include: Yao, Hui, Yi (Lolo) and Shui.

Culture

Guangxi is known for its linguistic diversity. In the capital of Nanning, for example, four dialects / languages are spoken locally: Southwestern Mandarin, Cantonese, Pinghua, and Zhuang.

Tourism

The major tourist attraction of Guangxi is Guilin, a town famed across China and the world for its spectacular setting by the Lijiang River (Li River) amongst severe karst peaks. It also used to be the capital of Guangxi, and Jingjiang Princes City, the old princes residence, is open to the public. South of Guilin down the river is the town of Yangshuo, which has become a favourite destination for foreign tourists, particularly backpackers.

Ethnic minorities native to Guangxi, such as the Zhuang and Dong, are also interesting for tourists. The northern part of the province, bordering with Guizhou, is home to the Longmen rice terraces, said to be some of the steepest in the world. Nearby Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County.

Miscellaneous topics

External links


Province-level divisions administered by the People's Republic of China Missing image
PRC_flag_large.png
Flag of the People's Republic of China

Provinces¹: Anhui | Fujian | Gansu | Guangdong | Guizhou | Hainan | Hebei | Heilongjiang | Henan | Hubei | Hunan | Jiangsu | Jiangxi | Jilin | Liaoning | Qinghai | Shaanxi | Shandong | Shanxi | Sichuan | Yunnan | Zhejiang
Autonomous Regions: Guangxi | Inner Mongolia | Ningxia | Tibet | Xinjiang
Municipalities: Beijing | Chongqing | Shanghai | Tianjin
Special Administrative Regions: Hong Kong | Macau
¹ See also: Political status of Taiwan
de:Guangxi

fr:Guangxi ja:広西チワン族自治区 pt:Guangxi fi:Guangxi zh:广西 za:Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigi

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